ANT 230-003 Intro to Biological Anthropology

Flashcards
Cultural or social anthropology is:
the study of patterns and beliefs and behavior found in the modern and historical cultures
Data:
facts from which conclusions can be drawn; scientific information
The purpose of scientific research is NOT to establish absolute truths, RATHER:
to generate more consistent and accurate explanations of phenomena in our universe based on observation and testing
The focus of cultural anthropology has shifted in the 20th century:
where they look at their own culture and the people around them
Artifacts:
objects or materials made by or modified for use by hominins
Ethnographies:
detailed descriptive studies of human societies
Archaeology:
the study of earlier cultures by anthropologists who specialize in the scientific recovery, analysis, and interpretation of the material remains of past societies
Today physical anthropology is also known as:
biological anthrobology
Physical Anthropology:
is the study of human biology within the framework of evolution with an emphasis between biology and culture
Applied Anthropology:
the practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques
Paleoanthropolgy:
the interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier homimins like the chronology physical structure, habitats, etc.
Bipedally:
on two feet; walking habitually on two legs
Biological Anthropology:
emphasis on more biologically oriented topics such as genetics, evolutionary biology, nutrition, physiological adaption, and growth and development
The goal of paleoanthrological research:
is to identify the various early human and human-like species, establish a chronological sequence of relationships among them, and gain insights into their adaption and behavior
Scientific Method:
an approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data
Bio-cultural interactions have resulted in many anatomical, biological, and behavioral changes during the course of human evolution:
the shape of the pelvis, increase brain size, reorganization of neurological structures, smaller teeth, development of language, etc.
Evolutionary theory, particularly natural selection explains:
how life forms have changed overtime and how new species are produced
Physical Anthropology is a:
biological science that investigates how humans have evolved and continue to do so
Culture:
Behavioral aspects of human adaption including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles
Continuum:
a set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum
Worldview:
general cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society
Speciation:
the process that new species evolves from earlier sppecies
Savanna:
the large flat grassland with scattered trees and shrubs; found in many regions of the world with dry to warm hot climates
Scientific testing:
the precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification; the procedure by which hypothesis and theories are verified, modified, or discarded
The focus of cultural anthropology has shifted in the 20th century:
where they look at their own culture and the people around them
Genetic:
having to do with the gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring
Culture is learned, and the process of learning ones belief:
begins at birth
Adaptation:
an anatomical, physiological. or behavioral response to the enviorment
Species:
a group of organisms that can be interbred to produce fertile offspring
Hominis:
members of the evolutionary group that includes modern day human and extinct bipedal relatives
Macroevolution:
changes produced after may generations such as the appearance of new species
Molecular Anthropologists play a key role::
in explaining human evolution, adaption, and our biological relationships with other species
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):
the double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code; main component of chromosomes
Physical Anthropologists:
are interested in how humans both differ from and are similar to other animals especially nonhuman primates
Molecular Anthropologists:
use cutting edge technologies the investigate between human populations as well as between humans and nonhumans
Osteology:
the study of skeletal material
Before genetic and molecular techniques became widespread osteology was the only way:
anthropologists could study our immediate ancestors
Paleopathologists:
investigate the prevalence of trauma, certain infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, and numerous other conditions that may eave evidence in the bone
Forensic Anthropology:
an applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters; often work in coroners where the can identify and analyze remains
Ethnocentric:
viewing other cultures from the inherently based perspective of ones own culture
Ethnocentrism often results as :
being seen as inferior to ones own culture
Physical or biological anthropology is a scientific discipline concerned with:
the biological and behavioral characteristics of human being
Empirical:
an approach relying on expierement of observation
Bioarchaeology:
the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites
Paleopathology:
the branch of osteolgy that studies the evidence of diseases and injuries in human skeletal remains from archaeological sites
Primatolgy:
the study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates
Applied anthropology relies on:
the research and theories of academic anthropologists
Theory:
a broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypothesis
Science:
a method of gaining information to explain a natural phenomena
Quantitatively:
pertaining to the measurements of quantity and including such properties as size, number, and capacity
Relativistic:
is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental context
Archaeologists obtain information from:
artifacts
Behavior:
anything that organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli
Bio-cultural evolution:
the mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolutions
Evolution:
a change in the genetic structure of a population; the appearance of new species
Micro-evolution:
small changes occurring within species, such as changes in allele frequencies
Nutritional anthropologists:
study the relationships between various dietary components, cultural practices, physiology, and certain aspects of health and disease
Anthropology:
the field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology
Primates:
members of the mammalian order primates
Physical or biological anthropology research can help:
us explain what it means to be human and we came to be the way we are
Quadrupedal:
using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion
Hypothesis:
explanation of a phenomena

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