ANT 230-003 Intro to Biological Anthropology

Cultural or social anthropology is:
the study of patterns and beliefs and behavior found in the modern and historical cultures
facts from which conclusions can be drawn; scientific information
The purpose of scientific research is NOT to establish absolute truths, RATHER:
to generate more consistent and accurate explanations of phenomena in our universe based on observation and testing
The focus of cultural anthropology has shifted in the 20th century:
where they look at their own culture and the people around them
objects or materials made by or modified for use by hominins
detailed descriptive studies of human societies
the study of earlier cultures by anthropologists who specialize in the scientific recovery, analysis, and interpretation of the material remains of past societies
Today physical anthropology is also known as:
biological anthrobology
Physical Anthropology:
is the study of human biology within the framework of evolution with an emphasis between biology and culture
Applied Anthropology:
the practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques
the interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier homimins like the chronology physical structure, habitats, etc.
on two feet; walking habitually on two legs
Biological Anthropology:
emphasis on more biologically oriented topics such as genetics, evolutionary biology, nutrition, physiological adaption, and growth and development
The goal of paleoanthrological research:
is to identify the various early human and human-like species, establish a chronological sequence of relationships among them, and gain insights into their adaption and behavior
Scientific Method:
an approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data
Bio-cultural interactions have resulted in many anatomical, biological, and behavioral changes during the course of human evolution:
the shape of the pelvis, increase brain size, reorganization of neurological structures, smaller teeth, development of language, etc.
Evolutionary theory, particularly natural selection explains:
how life forms have changed overtime and how new species are produced
Physical Anthropology is a:
biological science that investigates how humans have evolved and continue to do so
Behavioral aspects of human adaption including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles
a set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum
general cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society
the process that new species evolves from earlier sppecies
the large flat grassland with scattered trees and shrubs; found in many regions of the world with dry to warm hot climates
Scientific testing:
the precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification; the procedure by which hypothesis and theories are verified, modified, or discarded
The focus of cultural anthropology has shifted in the 20th century:
where they look at their own culture and the people around them
having to do with the gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring
Culture is learned, and the process of learning ones belief:
begins at birth
an anatomical, physiological. or behavioral response to the enviorment
a group of organisms that can be interbred to produce fertile offspring
members of the evolutionary group that includes modern day human and extinct bipedal relatives
changes produced after may generations such as the appearance of new species
Molecular Anthropologists play a key role::
in explaining human evolution, adaption, and our biological relationships with other species
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):
the double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code; main component of chromosomes
Physical Anthropologists:
are interested in how humans both differ from and are similar to other animals especially nonhuman primates
Molecular Anthropologists:
use cutting edge technologies the investigate between human populations as well as between humans and nonhumans
the study of skeletal material
Before genetic and molecular techniques became widespread osteology was the only way:
anthropologists could study our immediate ancestors
investigate the prevalence of trauma, certain infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, and numerous other conditions that may eave evidence in the bone
Forensic Anthropology:
an applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters; often work in coroners where the can identify and analyze remains
viewing other cultures from the inherently based perspective of ones own culture
Ethnocentrism often results as :
being seen as inferior to ones own culture
Physical or biological anthropology is a scientific discipline concerned with:
the biological and behavioral characteristics of human being
an approach relying on expierement of observation
the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites
the branch of osteolgy that studies the evidence of diseases and injuries in human skeletal remains from archaeological sites
the study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates
Applied anthropology relies on:
the research and theories of academic anthropologists
a broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypothesis
a method of gaining information to explain a natural phenomena
pertaining to the measurements of quantity and including such properties as size, number, and capacity
is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental context
Archaeologists obtain information from:
anything that organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli
Bio-cultural evolution:
the mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolutions
a change in the genetic structure of a population; the appearance of new species
small changes occurring within species, such as changes in allele frequencies
Nutritional anthropologists:
study the relationships between various dietary components, cultural practices, physiology, and certain aspects of health and disease
the field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology
members of the mammalian order primates
Physical or biological anthropology research can help:
us explain what it means to be human and we came to be the way we are
using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion
explanation of a phenomena

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