ANTH Test 1: General Anthropology

Based on the article by Benjamin Freed from discussion two, which of the following are true

a. Evolution and Intelligent Design are two equally valid scientific theories

b. a theory is a set of hunches

c. different knowledge systems (such as science or religion) seek to answer different types of questions

d. both A and C

e. all of the above
c. different knowledge systems (such as science or religion) seek to answer different types of questions

What is anthropology?

a. the art of ethnography

b. the study of long term physiological adaptation

c. the study of the stages of social evolution

d. the humanistic investigation of myths in nonindustrial societies

e. the exploration of human diversity in time and space
e. the exploration of human diversity in time and space

What is the term for the ability to create new expressions by combining other expressions?

a. displacement

b. productivity

c. diglossia

d. morphemic utility

e. phonemic utility
b. productivity

___ refers to the specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups.

a. syntactical vocabulary

b. spatial vocabulary

c. focal vocabulary

d. vernacular vocabulary.

e. temporal vocabulary
c. focal vocabulary

Acculturation is the process by which people lose the culture they learned as children

T/F
false

Applied anthropology

a. originated at the same time that anthropology’s four field approach became established among early twentieth century US academics

b. has yet to be recognized by the American Anthropological Association

c. encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques of its four subfields to identify, assess, and solve practical problems

d. focuses on preparing emerging academic scholars to improve their grant application skills

e. is a European phenomenon
c. encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques of its four subfields to identify, assess, and solve practical problems

Natural selection is the process by which the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so in greater numbers than other in the same population. But more than survival of the fittest, natural selection is the natural process that leads to

a. the toughest members of their population having the longest life span

b. differential reproductive success

c. the most fit members collecting the most resources from the environment

d. the survival of those members of their population that practice true altruism

e. survival success in any environment
b. differential reproductive success

What is excavation NOT about?

a. It is a key fieldwork strategy in archaeology

b. It is used to reconstruct settlement patterns over a large area

c. It is used to study how cultures change over time

d. It complements regional surveys

e. None of the above
e. none of the above

What is the Principle of Linguistic Relativity?

a. switching to another language or dialect depending upon the situation

b. all languages are equally effective at communicating

c. language is passed down through generations

d. societies that live in close proximity will adopt the same language

e. all languages are relatively the same
b. all languages are equally effective at communicating

The idea that evolutionary change is usually slow and continuous except when infrequent moments of extreme and large rapid change occur.

a. punctuated equilibrium

b. geographic isolation

c. speciation

d. gradualism

e. catastrophism
a. punctuated equilibrium

What role do the Mendelian Genetic principles of recombination and independent assortment play in evolution?

a. they work to limit the amount of variation in a population

b. they increase the frequencies of deleterious genes

c. they work to limit the number of potential phenotypes

d. they act to create genetic variability in a breeding population

e. they act to reduce the overall fitness of a breeding population
d. they act to create genetic variability in a breeding population

In anthropology, cultural relativism is not a moral position but a methodological one. It states that

a. because cultures clues vary between cultures, they cannot be analyzed and compared

b. some cultures are relatively better than others

c. to understand another culture fully, we must use tactics to try to jar people so that their true views are revealed

D. to understand another culture, we must use tactics to try to jar people so that their true views are revealed

e. to bring about desired cultural change, anthropologists should act as emissaries of the most evolved cultural values
c. to understand culture fully, we must try to understand how the people in that culture see things

What type of term is used to convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed?

a. formal adresses, but sociolinguists rarely pay attention to them, because their use in a social situation is always a result of linguistic exploitation

b. honorifics

c. code switch

d. diglossia

e. linguistic relational
b. honorifics

Practice theory recognizes that the study of anthropology takes a lot of place before resulting in accurate descriptions of a culture.

T/F
true

Anthropology who study the past do not have to worry so much about ethical concerns, since their studies do not concern living people

T/F
false

Although Darwin became the best known evolutionist, the idea of evolution had been around well before him and the modern theory id different from what he described. Darwin’s key contribution was to propose a mechanism that drives evolution, which is known as

a. catastrophism

b. mutation

c. creationism

d. natural selection

e. lamarckianism
d. natural selection

How are the four subfields of US anthropology unified?

a. each subfield studies human variation through time and space

b. each subfield studies the human capacity for language

c. each subfield studies human biological variability

d. each subfield studies human genetic variation through time and space

e. the subfields really are not unified; their grouping into one discipline is a historical accident
a. each subfield studies human variation through time and space

Identify which of the following that best reflect attributes or examples of culture:

a. drinking sweet tea

b. the Masaai invitation ceremony known as Emuratare (circumcision)

c. a forest-dwelling indigenous group in the Amazon begins to watch TV and own cell phones

d. a man living in the suburbs perceives his mowed and manicured front lawn as “natural” space

e. these all reflect attributes of or provide examples of culture
e. these all reflect attributes of or provide examples of culture

The American Anthropological Association’s Code of Ethics

a. applied differently to the different types of anthropology

b. is applicable only to research being conducted in the US

c. is designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and society in general

d. is the result of a UN resolution designed to ensure that human rights are respected in the field of US anthropology

e. is too broad for most anthropologists to find useful
c. is designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and society in general

The idea of universal and inalienable human rights that are superior to the laws and ethics of any one culture can conflict with s one of the ideas central to cultural relativism

T/F
true

Which of the following phrases describing anthropological fieldwork is incorrect?

a. Ethnographic fieldwork involves participant observation

b. all fieldwork is always done just from the emic perspective

c. anthropological fieldwork is longitudinal

d. fieldwork is utilized in every subfield of anthropology

e. most fieldwork is based on specific research questions
b. all fieldwork is always done just from the emic perspective

Which of the following statements best summarizes the culture concept in anthropology?

a. culture is a set biologically based and community held ideas that humans have from birth given in a society

b. culture is a set of unlearned and ingrained nuances that make each group of people different

c. culture is a set of learned, shared behaviors and ideas that human acquire as members of society

d. culture is a set of diverse practices like dancing and singing that is always adaptive to individual and social health wellbeing

e. all of the above are correct
c. culture is a set of learned, shared behaviors and ideas that human acquire as members of society

Sapir and Whorf argued that the grammatical categories of different languages lead their speakers to think about things in particular ways but they did not address how languages change. However, studies on the differences between female and male Americans in regard to the color terms they use suggest that

a. changes in the US economy, society and culture have had no impact on the use of color terms, or on any other terms for that matter

b. it is also correct to argue that changes in culture produce changes in language and thought as well

c. in support of the spair-whorf hypothesis, different languages produce different ways of thinking

d. women and men are equally sensitive to the changing marketing tactics of the cosmetic industry with their introduction of new color terms

e. with changes over time women spend more money on status goods than do men because of differences in using color terms
b. it is also correct to argue that changes in culture produce changes in language and thought as well

Any factor that contributes to the change in genetic frequencies in a breeding population from generation to generation is considered a mechanism of genetic evolution. Those mechanisms are

a. sexual selection, mutation, and human biological plasticity

b. independent assortment, recombination and mutation

c. random genetic drift and random gene flow

d. phenotypic straining through the organisms development and mutations across the generations

e. natural selection, mutation, random genetic drift and gene flow
e. natural selection, mutation, random genetic drift and gene flow

A holistic and comparative perspective

a. makes general anthropology superior to sociocultural anthropology

b. refers only to the cultural aspects of human diversity that anthropologists study

c. makes anthropology an interesting field of study, but too broad of one to apply to real problems people face today

d. most characterizes anthropology, when compared to other disciplines that study humans

e. is the hallmark of all social sciences, not just anthropology
d. most characterizes anthropology, when compared to other disciplines that study humans

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