Anthro #3 – What Makes Us Human?

What makes us human? – Anthropology
-evolved physically and cognitively
-walk upright
-communicate in oral & written forms
-problem solve
What makes us human? – Sociology
-chracteristic that defines humanity
human interaction, creating communities, ability to relate and connect to symbols
What makes us human? – Psychology
The Cognitive Process
-interpreting + manipulating mental ideas
Examples of Graphic Organizers
– Venn diagram
– Mind map
Humanity interpretation – Hitler
-only valued aerian race
-believed one race was superior
-little value for human life
Human Interpretation- Vannier
-felt importance of love and belongingness
-was understanding of differences
-believed every life had value
-believed in equality
Society Hitler Perspective Support
-Media, values specific image and type of person
Society Support Vanier
-Soup Kitchens for the needy
-Homeless shelters for the needy
Outline what the future of humanity could look like
-choosing what baby looks like
Universal Symbol
– stop sign
Universal body language
-crossing arms = closed off
-leaning towards = interested, listening intently
Universal Facial Expressions
-smiling means happiness
-frown = sadness
Global variances on gestures
– OK north america means zero france
– Come north america means bye Italy
Fashion to communicate identity
-represent values/interests
-show you belong in a certain group
Music To communicate identity
-could represent beliefs and interests
-oftentimes adopted styles of their musical icons
Anthropological View on communication
– have evolved physically to be able to communicate/speak
-communicate through gestures and body language
-what languge was mainly used for previously
Sociological view on communication
-how it impacts culture
-its affect on a culture
Psychologists view on communication
-two main branches in psychology, either innate or learned
-how technology affects the acquisition
-how it develops in young children
Nature vs. nurture- Anthropology perspective
Nature- Genetic Factors
-genes are programmmed at birth
Nurture- Environment Factors
-can contribute to variations in the genetic program
Milgram Experiment
– see how people react to authority
– see if they would harm someone if an authorative figure told them to do so
Kitty Genovese
example of by stander effect
-stabbed on street near apartment building
– +30 people saw, but no one took action until towards the end of the attack
Similarities between Kitty and Milgram Experiment
– in both cases looked towards others to see appropriate reaction
-didnt take initiative to act
Baumrind Child development theory
-identified 3 main parenting styles that influence child development
Authoritarian- demand rigid obedience
Permissive- lax or inconsistent direction for child
Authoritative- firm but set realistic expectations
Erikson child development theory
-sees development as a series of conflict resolution stages
-developed a theory he called 8 stages of psychosocial development
Piaget Child development
-presented theory which outlines stages of cognitive development and emphasizes quantity and quality of info acquired at each level
Kohlberg child development
– believed people pass through stages of moral development beginning at 13
– once at this age believed they were capable of telling right from wrong
-not developed in isolation but through interactions with guardians and peers
-3 levels, 2 stages in each
Gillian theory child development
-criticized kohlberg, pointed out he only used male subjects
-believed women went through other stages of moral development that emphasized empathy and compassion
-believed women more concerned with relationships and self than concepts like societal demands
-identified 3 stages of moral development in women
David Reimer Case
-Supports Nature
identical twin, at 7 months circumcision goes wrong, doctors suggest to reassign gender, Bruce > Brenda, raised as girl but acta like tomboy, rejects dresses, plays with trucks, finds out truth at 12, goes through procedure to become male, commits suicide later in life
Isolated Children
– Supports Nurture (werent able to develop properly)
children raised in near isolation within human households
Isolates ex
Genie- kept in isolation firat 13 years, locked in a room, beat if made a sound, malformed, malnourished, couldnt talk/walk
learned new words cant speak sentences, almost fully potty trained, poor social habits
Anna- lived on farm, grandad didnt approve of her, stayed in attic first 6 years, couldnt talk/walk, very skinny, was fed only cow milk
went to school for children with special needs, basic hygiene, understands simple commands
Isabelle- kept in dark secluded room, mom was dead mute, stayed there till 6 1/2, croaked and used gestures, feeble minded, behaved like animal, after treatment of pantomime and dramatization started to develop, covered 6 years of learning in 2, went to public school
Agents of socialization
1. Family (first agent encounter, huge impact during childhood, values, model behavior etc.)
2. School (reinforced gender roles, social norms + expected behaviors, educated to be contributing members to society)
3. Peers (Super important in adolescence, socialize with peers with similar interests, goals, attitudes)
4. Religion (influence has declined, many viewed as unifying factor, promoted values like harwork)
Rite of passage
ceremonies that mark a person’s progress from one stage to another
Body Adornment and rites of passage
– sign of adulthood, royalty
– signifies and symbolizes transition from one stage to another
Components of rites of passage
1. You are changed from what you were to something new
2. You temporarily renove yourself from society
3. You are re-admitted into society as a new person
Ceremonial Disconnect
-key event/ceremony/rite of passage that leaves the key individual disconnected from the event (ex. funeral)
-biological differences between males and females (genitals, XX or XY chromosomes etc.)
-defined by culture
-how men and women are perceived
-perceptions and roles of men and women are not the same in all cultures
-thus gender is said to be “culturally constructed”
Baby storm- why did public want to learn its gender?
-so abnormal to leave the gender undefined
-people didnt know how to act around it
-felt it was mistreatment
Women in Media
-sexualized, objectified
-portrayed as weaker, submissive, the housewife
Men in Media
-sometimes sexualized, portrayed as tough, firm, confident, not sensitive
Dove Campaign Difference
– Age is Beauty campaign
– used real women, didnt photoshop or advertise unattainable ideals

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