anthro chapter 1

Flashcards
anthropology
the study of humankind by all people in all times.
arboreal
of or relating to trees.
archaeology
the study of human history and prehistory.
artifact
an object made by a human being, usually being from the past.
biocultural approach
states that humans are a result of a combination of inherited(biological) traits and cultural(learned) traits.
physical or biological anthropology
studies every aspect of past and present human biology.
bipedalism
refers to the idea of locomotion among animals and humans.
cultural anthropology
the study of present day people, deals with human culture with respect to social structure, language, law, etc.
empirical
based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic.
genome
the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism.
hominin
the group consisting of modern humans, extinct human species, and all of our immediate ancestors.
hypothesis
a proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
linguistic anthropology
studies the construction and use of language by human societies.
material culture
refers to the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture.
morphology
the study of the forms of things, deals with the forms of living organisms and with the relationships between their structures.
primate
any memeber of the group of animals that includes human beings, apes, monkeys, etc.
scientific method
a method of procedure consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and also the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
terrestrial
of, on, or relating to earth.
theory
a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing being explained.
Franz Boas
united the study of culture, language, and biology within american anthropology.
Which is the study of evolution and variation in humans?
physical anthropology.
Physical anthropologists study what type of science?
both biological and social.
Anthropology views humans as both:
biological and cultural beings.
What can be learned from studying a population through time?
we can learn that diets, and therefore human biology, change through time.
How is biocultural anthropology different from cultural anthropology?
it examines the interaction between biology and culture in shaping human biology.
How has the environment influenced human biology?
changes in the climate produce changes in the environment resulting in changes in human biology through diet.
The two concepts that best explain physical anthropology:
every person is a product of evolutionary history and each of us is the product of our own individual life histories.
Physical anthropologists seek to:
study humans from a biological and cultural perspective.
Anthropology includes the study of:
prehistoric societies and artifacts.
Bipedalism is considered one of the hallmarks of hominid evolution because:
it was the first evolutionary development that distinguished humans from other animals.
The results of a disadvantaged social environment include:
poor health, reduced height, and shortened life expectancy.
Environment refers to:
social and cultural factors that have affected you.
Modern humans lost the typical primate honing-canine used for food processing because of which invention?
stone tools.
List the steps of the scientific method in order:
identify a problem, state a hypothesis, collect data, and test the hypothesis.
What does it mean to say that science is empirical?
it is based on evidence.
What do physical anthropologists call the taxonomic group that includes humans and humanlike ancestors, excluding living nonhuman primates?
hominins.
Physical anthropology is also known as:
biological anthropology.
What makes human learning particularly unique?
humans pass information and culture from generation to generation.
Which of the following are the six key attributes that make humans unique among primates?
nonhoning chewing, speech, complex material culture and tool use, bipedalism, dependence on domesticated foods, and habitual and intensive hunting.
Approximately how many genes does the human genome include?
20,000-25,000.
To which of the subdisciplines does forensic anthropology belong?
physical anthropology.
What are the four subfields of anthropology?
cultural, archaeology, linguistic, and physical or biological.

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