Anthro Final

The cultural construction of whether one is female, male, or something else.
With the term “sex,” anthropologists are referring to biological differences. In contrast, they define gender as..
Gender roles
The tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex.
Freedom of autonomy (in disposing of one’s labor and its fruits) and social power (control over the lives, labor, and produce of others).
According to anthropologist Ann Stoler, the economic determinants of gender status include…
That patterns of division of labor by gender are culturally general- not universal.
Ethnographic evidence has revealed that traditionally, Pawnee women worked wood, and among the Hidatsa, women made boats. Cases such as these suggest…
Societies or individuals.
In his discussion on recurrent gender patterns, Kottak stresses that exceptions to cross-cultural generalizations may involve..
The separation of home and the outside world.
What does the domestic-public dichotomy refer to?
Female status tends to be high.
Among horticulturalists with matrilineal descent and matrilocality…
Their land and prestige are passed through the females.
Which of the following statements about groups with the patrilineal-patrilocal complex is not true?
European immigration around 1900
Of the following factors, which is historically correlated with the lowering of women’s status in the U.S.?
are headed by women.
More than half of all American families living in poverty…
There is conclusive scientific evidence that sexual orientation is genetically determined.
Regarding sexual orientation, all of the following are true except…
They believed it is necessary for boys to ingest semen in order to mature in a healthy way.
According to studies in the 1960s, why did the young Etoro men and boys engage in homosexual relationships?
It was permitted to take place only in the couple’s residence.
Based on research in the 1960s, which of the following statements about Etoro conceptions of heterosexual intercourse is not true?
Sex.
Which of the following is most strongly determined by biology?
Family of orientation.
What is the name of the family in which a child is raised?
That there are many alternatives to the nuclear family.
Traditionally in some areas of the former Yugoslavia, several nuclear families were embedded in an extended family household called a zadruga. Among the Nayars in souther India, it was typical for people to live in matrilineal extended family compounds called tarawads. Descriptions of these culturally specific cases highlights…
kinship ties are important to the people anthropologists study; they are a key component of people’s everyday social relations.
Understanding kinship systems is an important part of anthropology because…
Neolocality.
What is the name of the postmarital residence pattern in which the married couple is expected to establish its own home?
Lineal.
What is the most common system of kinship classification used in the U.S.?
An important strategy the urban poor use to adapt to poverty.
In North American, the relatively high incidence of expanded family households in the lower class is…
Contrary to expectations, the importance of kinship is growing in contemporary nations.
Although the nuclear family remains a cultural ideal for many Americans, nuclear families accounted for just 23 percent of American households in 2005. In fact, other domestic arrangements outnumber the “traditional” American household four to one. All of the following are among the reasons for these trends except:
Brazilians live in a less mobile society and so they stay in closer contact with their relation including members of their extended family than North Americans do.
Contemporary North American adults usually define their families as consisting of their husband or wives and their children. In contrast, when middle-class Brazilians talk about their families, they mean their parents, siblings, aunts, uncles, grandparents, and eventually their children. They rarely mention the spouse. Which of the following is among the reasons for this stark cultural contrast?
lineage.
A unilineal descent group whose members demonstrate their common descent from an apical ancestor is a…
Neolocal.
What postmartial residence rule is most often found in societies with lineal kinship terminologies?
Some genealogical kin and considered to be relatives whereas others are not, and the rules underlying such considerations vary across cultures.
What does it mean that kinship, like race, is culturally constructed?
The point of reference used to determine which kin terms go where.
What does ego stand for in a depiction of a kinship system?
Bilateral kinship.
What kind of kinship is most common to the contemporary U.S.?
Bilateral.
In what kind of kinshipcalculation are kin ties traced equally through males and females?
Ego’s parents and siblings.
What makes up ego’s nuclear family of orientation?
Collateral relative.
According to genealogical kin types used by anthropologists to study kinship relations, what kind of relative is ego’s mother’s brother?
FB and MB
In a lineal system of kinship terminology, which of the following pairs would be called by the same term?
social rather than biological paternity, again illustrating kinship is socially constructed.
In Sudan, a Nuer woman can marry a woman if her father has only daughters but no male heirs. This is done to maintain the patrilineage. The “wife” has sex with a man or men until she gets pregnant. The children born are then accepted as the offspring of both the female husband and the wife. What is important in this example is…
Genitor.
What term refers to the biological father of a child?
Pater.
What is the term anthropologists use to identify ego’s socially recognized father?
Incest.
All cultures have taboos against _______, sexual relations with someone considered to be close relative although precisely what constitutes a close relative carries across cultures.
it links people into a wider network that nutures, helps, and protects them in times of needs.
Exogamy, the practice of seeking a husband or wife outside one’s own group, has adaptive vary because…
The children of two brothers or two sisters are parallel cousins. The children of a brother and sister are cross cousins.
Although the incest taboo is a cultural universal, cultures define incest differently. For example, in many cultures, it is incest to marry parallel cousins but not cross cousins. What is the difference?
Parallel cousins are considered closer relatives than cross cousins.
With unilineal descent, sex with cross cousins in proper but sex with parallel cousins is considered incestuous. Why?
adds to the evidence that although tabooed, incest does happen.
A recent cross-cultural study of 87 societies, all of which had incest taboos, investigated the rate at which such taboos were broken. The results of this study…
not all cultures define incest the same way.
The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but…
Endogamy.
What term refers to the culturally sanctioned practice of marrying someone within a group to which one belongs?
Homogamy.
In the U.S., the rise in female employment, especially in professional careers, when coupled with _______, has dramatically increased household incomes in the upper classes. The pattern has been one factor sharpening the contrast in household income between the richest and poorest populations of Americans.
They tend to maintain social distinctions between groups.
How do rules of endogamy function in society?
Bridewealth.
What term refers to a gift made by the husband and his kin to the kin of the bride?
Dowry.
What is the term for the gift that the wife’s group gives to the husband’s family?
Sororate marriage.
What is the name of the custom by which a widower marries the sister of his deceased wife?
The type of marriage in which there is more than one wife.
Which of the following best defines polygyny?
a man who marries, then divorces, then marry again, then divorces again, then marries again, each time to a different woman.
All of the following are a form of polygamy except
They frequently involve hierarchical arrangement among wives.
Which of the following statements about polygynous marriages is true?
Is it a cultural adaptation mobility associated with male travel for trade, commerce, and warfare.
Which of the following statements about polyandry is most likely true?
the intensification of foraging lifestyles among communities that have retreated from the chaos of modern life.
Deforestation is a global concern. Forest loss can lead to increased greenhouse gas production which contributes to global warming. The destruction of tropical forests also is a major factor in the loss of global biodiversity. The global scenarios of deforestation include all the following except…
They created tribal ties and kin links between Rambo and the prisoners he was rescuing.
Illustrating how forces from world centers can and are creatively modified to fit the local culture, how did the Native Australians “read” the movie Rambo?
ind’gena (indigenous person)
In Spanish-speaking Latin America, social scientists and politicians favor which term over (Indian)- the colonial term that the Spanish and the Portuguese conquerors used to refer to the native inhabitants of the Americas?
essentialism
Which term describes the process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen, so _ hide the historical processes and politics within which that identity developed?
was a revitalization movement that helped the Iroquois survive drastically modified environments.
The Handsome Lake religion
translocal
To Arjun Appadurai (1990) ______ describes the linkages in the modern world that have enlarged and erased old boundaries and distinctions.
The Sudanese government adopted a policy of cultural imperialism.
In 1989, a military government seized power in Sudan. This resulted in which of the following?
are becoming more common.
Cases where local communities use modern technology to preserve and revise their traditions
cultural imperialism
What term refers to the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures?
acculturation
What term refers to changes that result when groups come into continuous firsthand contact?
not fixed; they are fluid and multiple.
Identities are…
acculturation
Westernization is a form of what kind of cultural change?
find solutions to environmental problems, acknowledging that ecosystems management involves multiple levels.
Today’s ecological anthropology, also known as environmental anthropology, attempts not only to understand but also to
upset the balance of radiative forcings working to warm and cool the Earth.
The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that keeps the Earth’s surface warm. Without greenhouse gases- water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and ozone life as we know it wouldn’t exist. The current problem is the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases have reached their highest level in 400,000 years, and this rise has
Meeting energy needs, particularly in energy-hungry countries such as the U.S., China, and India.
Which is the single greatest obstacle to slowing climate change?
broad-spectacle revolution
Which of the following is not one of the possible consequences experienced after the “shock phase” of an encounter between indigenous societies and more powerful outsiders?
ethnocentric
Kottak describes Americans’ belief that American television programs inevitably triumph over products around the world as
autochthon
Unlike “indigenous peoples,” what term, which highlights the prominence that the exclusion of strangers has assumed in day-to-day politics worldwide, has been claimed by majority groups in Europe?
It has a clear and functional design on structure
Which of the following is not true of postmodernism?
indigenous people
Social movements worldwide have adopted which term as a self-identifying and political label based on past oppression but now legitimizing a search for social, cultural, and political rights?
postmodern
What term refers to the blurring and breakdown of established canons (rules, standards, categories, distinctions, and boundaries)?
their autochthony, with an implicit call for excluding strangers from their communities
The last thirty years have seen a dramatic shift in the conditions of indigenous peoples in Latin America, where the drive by indigenous peoples for self-identification has emphasized all of the following except
missionaries and proselytizers representing the major world religions
While locals may create a new religion, on a global scale religious change is more commonly result of
locally created
Cultural meaning is
focused on how cultural beliefs and practices help human populations adapt to their environment.
Anthropology always has been concerned with how environmental forces influence humans and how human activities affect the biosphere and the Earth itself. The 1950s through the 1970s witnessed the emergence of an area of study known as cultural ecology or ecological anthropology That field…

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