Anthropology 101 FINAL Exam Study Guide

Culture Definition by Leslie White
is “man’s exosomatic means of adation
Outside the body of man
Culture Definition by E.B. Tylor
Is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Cultural Change
The influence of an individual or group’s behavior by the government, society, or other individuals
Connect the Culture defintions
Man is influenced by outside factors such as art, customs, or laws
Cultural Relativism
The belief that a culture’s believes and activities should be understood from an etic perspective
Etic mindset
Analysis of cultural phenomena from the perspective of one who does not participate in the culture being studied
Emic mindset
Analysis of cultural phenomena from the perspective of one who participates in the culture being studied
Remember Etic
Their view
Remember Emic
My view
Judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture
The Human Rights Problem
Wanting to protect every culture without harming cultures
Darwin and Wallace
Both created theories similar to each other, but Darwin’s had much more evidence
The story of the beginnings of human like culture
Started with H. Habils making tools which lead to an increase of brain size
Cultural Anthropology Field types
Observation, interviews, and participation
Radio Carbon Dating
c-14 based dating that measures the amount of carbon left in a previously living organism
Radio Carbon Dating Limits
Sample size, need to avoid cross contamination, limited to about 50,000 years, and changing C-14 ratios
4 reasons to do Archeolgy
Most of human history is not recorded in written documents, written documents are incomplete, documents can be biased, or answer anthropological questions
William Rathje
Archaeologist who focuses on human garbage
Garbology project
The study of what, where, and how things were thrown away to try to better understand current culture
Any object made, modified, or used by people
Artifact example
Stone tool
not modified by humans which have cultural relevance
Ecofact example
Unworked animal bones
Non-portable human made remains that can’t be moved without altering or destroying the original form
Feature example
builder’s trench
artifacts that are found together and that presumably were used at the same time or for similar or related tasks.
close relationship between objects or contexts
The origin of an object and recording it
the position that an object is found in
In Situ
An object in its original place
Orders of the soil deposition and its contents
Orders of the creation of artifacts and assemblages
Absolute Dating
Using a dating method to get an age range of an object
Relative dating
Dating an object based on its position and another artifact’s
Frozen human ancestor found in the Alps
Anaerobic Preservation Conditions
Waterlogged or covered remains that persevere better than remains that are not covered
Many people illegally steal artifacts from archaeology sites
The antiques market
Take the artifact out of context, that way not as much can be learned about an object. One of a kind artifacts end up on mantles’ of rich buyers
Linguistic Displacement
The ability to talk about things that are not present
A design feature of language that allows you to produce and comprehend entirely new utterances that you’ve never spoken or heard before
is the interpretation of body motion communication such as facial expressions and gestures — that is, nonverbal behavior related to movement of any part of the body or the body as a whole
Focal Vocabulary
is a set of words that are particularly important to a certain group
Focal Vocabulary Example
Medical terms
Chomsky’s Universal Grammar
Consists of a set of unconscious constraints that let us decide whether a sentence is correctly formed.
Sapir and Whorf’s Hypothesis
The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes
Historical lingustics
The study of the history and development of languages
The Myth of Biological race
Race was used to justify Colonialism, even though there are minimal differences between races
Social Construction of Race
The change is gradual not distinctive
The cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other
National culture
Cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation.
An exchange of cultural features between groups in firsthand contact
Acculturation example
Two countries trading
The process by which a person or a group’s language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group
Assimilation example
Immigrants accepting aspects of their new culture
A condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist
Puralism example
Is the co-existence of diverse cultures, where culture includes racial, religious, or cultural groups and is manifested in customary behaviours, cultural assumptions and values, patterns of thinking, and communicative styles
Multiculturalism example
an honors class with students who speak a range of languges
Sex v. Gender
Sex is the biological and physical characteristics while
Gender is socially constructed, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
Sex example
reproductive organs
Gender example
Society considers it appropriate for only women to wear dresses
Sexual Dimorphism
The differentiation between males and females of the same species
Biological distinctions in humans
Large brains, create tools, and the ability to walk upright
Gender role: Their limited biological basis
Certain jobs were done by a gender more often because they are physically better for the task.
Abu Hureyra Toe Bones
the toes of women we constantly bent from kneeling to grind grains
Gender Stratification
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
Nuclear Family of Procreation
A pair of adults and their offspring; created when marriage happens
Nuclear Family of Orientation
The nuclear family into which the person is born or adopted. Individual, parents, siblings; can’t be left
Fictive Kinship
People who are regarded as being part of a family even though they are not related by either blood or marriage bonds. ______ may bind people together in ties of affection, concern, obligation, and responsibility.
Affinal Kinship
Family releationships created by marriage
Bilateral Decedent Groups
Family lineage in which the relatives on the mother’s side and father’s side are equally important for emotional ties or for transfer of property or wealth. It is a family arrangement where descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents.
Unilateral Decent Groups
Line of Decent is traced through only one side of the family
Apical Ancestor
A common ancestor that a lineage can trace it decent through.
a corporate descent group whose members can trace their genealogical links to a known common ancestor.
a noncorporate descent group in which genealogical links to a common ancestor are assumed but are not actually known.
Patrilineal Descent group
tracing kinship, inheritance, power through only the male line
Matrilineal Descent group
tracing kinship, inheritance, power through the female line
residence after marriage in association with the wife’s mother’s relatives
residence after marriage in association with the husband’s father’s relatives.
residence in which the married couple’s household has no connection with either the husband’s or wife’s family
rules requiring selection of a marriage partner from outside a particular group.
rules requiring selecting of a marriage partner from within a particular group.
a man has more than one wife.
a woman has more than one husband
an individual who has more than one spouse.
Economic/Alliance aspects of marriage
Using marriage to show that two groups of people are aligned
a type of marriage in which a husband engages in marriage or sexual relations with the sister of his wife, usually after the death of his wife or if his wife has proven infertile
a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obligated to marry his brother’s widow, and the widow is obligated to marry her deceased husband’s brother.
The Bride’s family paying the groom for supporting the wife
payment made by a groom or his kin to the kin of the bride in order to make up for the family of the bride’s loss of her labor
The core
the dominant position, including the strongest, most powerful, and technically advanced nations.
the core, _________, and the periphery
includes the worlds least privileged and least powerful countries.
Core-periphery Model
Breaks down countries into three different positions of economic and political power: the core, the semi-periphery, & the periphery.
the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
modern example of colonialism
Europe’s scramble for Africa
ancient example of colonialism
Mongol Empire
Pyramids at Giza
the unequal distribution of power and status symbols.
belief in souls or doubles.
belief in several deities who control aspects of nature
worship of one supreme being.
nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time (Small scale)
nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor. (Large scale)
the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Search widely for food.
How most humans actually lived
beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.
formal, repetitive, stylized, and stereotyped practice, marking things as being different.
secular rituals
a formal behavior of man and it is not religious in nature.
A gift-giving feast practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and the United States.
Etic explanation of religion
Religion as an explanation, as social control, and as an identity.
Victor Turner
a British cultural anthropologist best known for his work on symbols, rituals and rites of passage
When humans have intervened with reproducing enough to create a genetic modification.
Karl Marx used the term “Mode of production” to refer to..
The specific organization of economic production in a given society.
Market principle
profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states.
Means of Production
land, labor, technology and capital – major productive resources
Mode of Production
way of organizing production – a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge.
Balanced Reciprocity
applies to exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household
Generalized Reciprocity
principle that characterizes exchanges between closely related individuals.
Negative Reciprocity
“Bartering” with things & not money, items of equal value, w/ no strong relationships.
a system of economic exchange involving the centralized collection of goods from members of a group followed by the redivision of those goods among those members.
The beginning of culture
Symbolic speech, started making art, our brain size increasing
Interconnected Religion
a religion has to relate to certain people
The 3 milestones in in the rise of languge
Development of language, the hyoid bone, and the upper Paleolithic revolution
Slack Farming
a Native American burial ground that was destroyed by looters in Kentucky which lead to the passing of more strict laws for looting a burial ground
The Princess of Vix
A wealthy female burial from the Iron Age which was determined based on her skeleton having anklets
From the reading of Western Diets talking about a sharp increase in the amount of processed sugars and foods eaten by western cultures

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