Anthropology 2351 Final Review chpt1-6, 9&10, the arts, religion, library research, systems/development, applied anthro, anthro theory recap,

Flashcards
In his article, “Body Ritual Among the Nacirema,” Horace Miner:
provides a good example of ethnographic description, but does not follow the guideline of considering both the emic and the etic perspectives, leading to a biased portrayal of this cultural group.
What is the point of the article, “Body Ritual Among the Nacirema,” by Horace Miner?
To force Americans to confront their own ethnocentrism by showing that American cultural practices could be seen as strange or weird.
What does it mean to take the Anthropological Perspective?
to avoid ethnocentrism and act as an objective outsider.
What does it mean to take an etic point of view?
To analyze a culture’s practices as an objective outsider
What is Anthropology?
The study of the entire human experience
Which subfield of Anthropology studies human beings from a biological perspective?
Physical or Biological Anthropology
Which of the following would NOT be a topic of study within the subfield of Linguistic Anthropology?
Human Evolution
A scholar working in which subfield of Anthropology would try to reconstruct past human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains of the past?
Archaeology
________________ is the subfield of Anthropology that studies human thought, behavior, and lifeways that are learned rather than genetically transmitted and that are typical of groups of people
Cultural Anthropology
What do we call the process through which an individual learns his or her culture?
Enculturation
What do we call the behaviors, values, and attitudes shared by a group of people? It is learned, symbolic, integrated, shared, adaptive, and subject to change.
Culture
Which characteristic of culture focuses on the fact that humans have a unique ability to associate signs with abstract meanings?
culture is symbolic
Which characteristic of culture looks at how it is a collection of systems that work together and affect one another?
culture is integrated
What is a group within a society that shares norms and values significantly different from those of the dominant culture?
subculture
What is a change in the biological structure or lifeways of an individual or population by which it becomes better fitted to survive and reproduce in its environment?
adaptation
What do we call the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another?
Diffusion
When using cultural relativism, we are practicing which approach?
Emic Approach
According to our reading, “Am I Judging This?” by John Omohundro, what does it mean when someone is experiencing Culture Shock?
This person is experiencing a defensive psychological response to prolonged removal from his or her own culture and interaction with another culture.
According to John Omohundro, which level of cultural relativism would argue that there are no human universals and that cultures should be able to maintain their traditional beliefs and practices, whatever they are, with no interference from outsiders?
The Strong Doctrine
Which interpretation for seal hunting in Newfoundland reflects the approach of Cultural Relativism?
Seal hunting was an important part of the economy and a crucial component of social identity for Newfoundland males and should have been considered within its cultural context.
___________ is the tendency to view one’s own culture as best and to judge the behaviors and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards.
Ethnocentrism
What is the major research tool of cultural anthropology? It includes both fieldwork among people in a society and the written results of such fieldwork.
Ethnography
What type of study is the attempt to find general principles or laws that govern cultural phenomena?
Ethnology
What do we call a person from whom anthropologists gather data?
cultural consultant
Which of the following is NOT one of the rules in the American Anthropological Association’s Code of Ethics?
Advance the goals of anthropological research at all costs
What is the primary research technique used to collect cultural data when an ethnographer goes to live with another community and document characteristics of their culture?
Participant Observation
Which ethnographic research methodology focuses on collecting narratives of the life experiences of research participants?
Life Histories
When using this method of ethnography, researchers rely on particular people from within a community who, because by accident, experience, talent, or training, can provide complete and useful information about life in that society.
Key Consultants
Why do anthropologists strive to consider the etic and the emic perspectives in their ethnographic field work?
To identify and present both points of view.
A university professor began his career by providing the first ethnographic description of a culture in Brazil. Since then, he has returned to this society several times, to study various topics. Currently, he corresponds with community members about globalization, and is still writing articles about this group. What type of ethnographic method does the research throughout his career demonstrate?
Longitudinal Research
Which 19th Century theory saw human societies as comparable to living organisms that would increase in complexity through time, and sought one sequence of cultural development to explain how all cultures everywhere change through time?
Unilineal Cultural Evolution
Describe one problem that was found with the theory of Unilineal Cultural Evolution.
It was found to be ethnocentric on the part of the professional researchers whom biasly claimed Western culture to be superior Or best.
Proposed by Franz Boas, this approach to studying cultures emphasizes the distinct histories and circumstances that led to change in any given culture
Historical Particularism
Which type of anthropological theory suggests that culture exists apart from humans, evolves on its own, and to a large extent shapes the behavior of people?
Cultural Determinism
Which brand of anthropological theory focuses on the material forces and economic factors within cultures in order to better understand cultural diversity and change
Cultural Materialism
Which brand of anthropological theory focuses on the particular environmental conditions that a culture faces in order to better understand cultural diversity and change?
Cultural Ecology
Sometimes called Interpretive Anthropology, this type of theory emphasizes systems of meaning that humans create to organize and understand their lives and the world around them.
Symbolic Anthropology
Which type of anthropological theory considers not only the ways that culture determines people’s behavior, but also how individuals and groups can shape, influence, and change cultural structures?
Agency Theory
Which is the name of the language ability that nonhuman primates have demonstrated in the wild?
Call Systems
What is the ability to communicate about things not happening in the present?
Displacement
What do we call the study of sound systems in language?
Phonology
What do we call the system for creating words from sounds?
Morphology
Which is a system of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences?
Syntax
Which hypothesis, proposed by Noam Chomsky argues that every human is born with a common cognitive ability for language and that the variability in language expression throughout the world is just a reflection of how different cultures use this basic structure in different ways?
Universal Grammar
In which particular field of research does Deborah Tannen work?
Sociolinguistics
In our article, “Report‐talk and Rapport‐talk,” we learned about the different ways that men and women use the English language to communicate toward various objectives. According to what we read in the article, what is Rapport‐talk?
The type of communication that is conducted by women to emphasize emotional self‐disclosure and empathy.
What do we call the total collection or stock of words in a language?
Lexicon
Which specialization in cultural anthropology focuses on subsistence strategies and economic systems?
Economic Anthropology
Which adaptive strategy characterized all existing human subsistence practices until about 10,000 year ago, when the first instances of food production came about?
foraging
Which of the following is NOT a cultural characteristic that tends to correlate with the foraging type of adaptive strategy?
a highly stratified system of social organization that is characterized by much inequality
Slash‐and‐burn is a subsistence technique traditionally seen in which type of adaptive strategy?
horticulture
Which subsistence strategy focuses on raising and caring for large herds of domesticated animals?
pastoralism
Anthropologists that believe that the adaptive strategy, economic system, or mode of production is most important in determining other aspects of the cultural system and influencing how the culture will change fall under which type of anthropological theory?
Cultural Materialism
What do we call the norms governing production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services within a society?
Economic System
In economic anthropology, what do we call a mutual give-and-take among people of equal status?
Reciprocity
In Economic Anthropology, what is exchange in which goods are collected from or contributed by members of a group and then given out to the group in a new pattern?
Redistribution
In Economic Anthropology, what do we call an economic system in which goods and services are bought and sold at a money price determined primarily by the forces of supply and demand?
Market Exchange
Which level of socio‐political organization involves small and mobile groups who exercise egalitarianism as a rule for civic management?
Band
Which of the following describes a social system in which there is no distinction based on hereditary social inequality?
Egalitarian
One of the film clips that we watched highlighted the way of life of the !Kung group of the San Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert. Which type of adaptive strategy and level of sociopolitical organization were demonstrated by this group?
Foraging Band
Which type of social status is inherited at birth?
Ascribed
What is the term given by Max Weber to describe the intensification of differences in wealth, power, and prestige within a society until there is a clearly recognized superordinate elite sector of society and a subordinate lower stratum?
Social Stratification
In anthropology, what do we call the ability to impose one’s will on others?
power
In anthropology, what do we call the ability to cause others to act based on characteristics such as honor, status, knowledge, ability, respect, or the holding of formal public office?
authority
In anthropology, what do we call a society characterized by institutionalized differences in prestige, but no important restrictions on access to basic resources?
rank society
In anthropology, what do we call the accumulation of material resources of access to the means of producing those resources?
wealth
According to Clifford D. Shearing and Philip C. Stenning, what is the real reason behind the high level of control imposed by the Disney corporation at their theme parks?
to maximize profit
What is defined as the manifestation of human creativity in music, performance, visual arts, storytelling, and literature, and is often called expressive culture?
art
The example of the paining, Guernica, about the Spanish Civil War is considered an important work of art because:
It is indisputably moving.
Art can come in many forms and styles. But anthropologists can look for clues in identifying works of art in other cultures. The clues that we learned about in this topic include all of the following except:
Art must be in a recognizable medium, in a prominent location in society, and created by a respected artist.
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of art that we have learned in this learning topic?
To alienate workers from the products of their labor.
What type of research in anthropology is the comparative study of the musics of the world?
Ethnomusicology
In Pascal Meyer’s description of music on the island of Rapa Iti, he describes a unique vocal manipulation that involves tonal dropping. This is a great example of ethnomusicology because we can see that this sound illustrates a particular cultural belief. What is that belief about?
the afterlife
In Anthropology, what do we call the proposed existence of immeasurable beings?
Religion
Which type of religion believes that all objects, living and nonliving, are imbued with spirit?
Animism
What term in the Anthropology of Religion refers to those objects, places, people, and statuses that are understood as existing in an indeterminate state, between clear-cut categories?
Liminal
What do we call a ritual that moves and individual from one social status to another?
Rite of Passage
Which of the following is a type of religious practice that is believed to produce a mechanical effect by supernatural means?
Magic
Which anthropological term refers to an individual socially recognized as being able to mediate between the world of humanity and the world of gods or spirits, but is not a recognized official of any religious organization?
Shaman
What is the belief in a single god?
Monotheism
What is a ceremonial act or a repeated stylized gesture used for specific occasions involving the use of religious symbols?
Ritual
What do we call the merging of elements of two or more religious traditions to produce a new religion?
Syncretism
What do we call a proclamation of reclaimed authority over a sacred tradition that is to be reinstated as an antidote for a society that is believed to have strayed from its cultural moorings?
Fundamentalism
Follow the links below to see some articles that have been published recently in anthropology. Then, please indicate which of these is a scholarly journal article.
Be sure to use the back arrow to return to the quiz after viewing each article – if you close the window, you may close the quiz (and end your one allowed attempt to complete the quiz).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC33580/ (USUALLY .GOV)
In the following citation, which is the title of the journal?
-Peluchette, J., & Karl K. (2010). Examining students’ intended image on Facebook: ‘What were they thinking?!’. Journal of Education for Business, 85(1), 30-37. dos:10.1080/08832320903217606.

Journal of Educational Business
In the following citation, which is the title of the article?
-Peluchette, J., & Karl K. (2010). Examining students’ intended image on Facebook: ‘What were they thinking?!’. Journal of Education for Business, 85(1), 30-37. dos:10.1080/08832320903217606.

Examining Students’ intended image on Facebook: what were they thinking?!
In the following citation, which is the volume number?
-Peluchette, J., & Karl K. (2010). Examining students’ intended image on Facebook: ‘What were they thinking?!’. Journal of Education for Business, 85(1), 30-37. dos:10.1080/08832320903217606.

85
In the following citation, which is the number of the issue?
-Peluchette, J., & Karl K. (2010). Examining students’ intended image on Facebook: ‘What were they thinking?!’. Journal of Education for Business, 85(1), 30-37. dos:10.1080/08832320903217606.

1
Which of the following is a true statement about publishing research in anthropology?
Anthropologists publish in both scholarly journals and in popular outlets for the public.
What is an electronic database?
A usually large collection of data (information), often in a specific subject area, organized especially for rapid search and retrieval.
Which of the following describes the Modern World System?
The global circumstance that we are in today, in which nations are economically and politically interdependent.
The Modern World System includes large scale socioeconomic stratification. Socioeconomic stratification is:
The intensification of social and economic differences based on wealth, power, and prestige, and resulting in a society with separate classes.
According to World Systems Theories outlined by Immanuel Wallerstein, the Modern World System is characterized by much socioeconomic tension, namely between the ___________, or the developed, industrialized, democratic parts of the world, and the ___________ areas that include the poorer sector of the world’s population which often struggles to provide resources, products, and services for little in return.
core, periphery
____________ is defined as the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time. It is thought that many characteristics of the Modern World System can be linked to interactions that have resulted from these circumstances in history.
Colonialism
Which of the following describes the most recent phase of large scale Colonialism in world history?
After the Industrial Revolution, European empires extended their rule over other nations, especially in Asia and Africa.
British and French colonialism influenced which sectors of other societies?
All answers are correct
__________________ studies focus on the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized to try to understand how modern cultural identities have been shaped by past instances of colonialism.
Postcolonial
What do we call the idea that by guiding the changes that are occurring in a particular society, more developed nations can help or benefit underdeveloped nations ‐ an idea that is often used to justify international economic development?
Interventionist Philosophy
Which of the following is one of the general problems that development anthropology tries to address? Specifically, this problem involves the ambitious planning of development that overestimates how much change a community wants or needs.
Overinnovation
Which of the following is a Price of Progress described by John Bodley?
All are correct.
_____________is the specific field of anthropology that applies anthropological data, techniques, perspectives, theory, and methods to the wider world that we live in, with the goal of solving contemporary social problems.
Applied Anthropology
Which of the following is an example of Applied Anthropology?
All of these answers are correct
Which of the following is the branch of Applied Anthropology that involves the application of methods and theory from all four subfields of anthropology to understand cultural perceptions of disease, illness, and the body, to aid in health related issues.
Medical Anthropology
Which of the following is the type of applied anthropology that focuses on the application of methods and theory from anthropology to evaluate the culture of a particular business and evaluate its efficiency and/or success.
Corporate Anthropology
What do we call applied anthropology that involves the application of methods and theory from physical anthropology in a legal setting?
Forensic Anthropology
Which of the following is the branch of Applied Anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimensions of, economic development?
Development Anthropology
Those development programs that are informed by anthropology will strive to do which of the following?
All of these answers are correct: flexible, responsive, culturally compatible, harness traditionality
The opinion that all underdeveloped communities are similar and will respond in equal ways to development initiatives has led to which common problem in development programs?
Underdifferentiation
In the article “Anthropology, Inc.” which of the following types of applied anthropology is explored?
Corporate Anthropology
In the article “Anthropology, Inc.” what is the main problem found by those that criticize this new role for anthropologists?
these anthropologists work for corporations, sometimes implementing changes that do not necessarily benefit the society under study
In the early 20th century, Lewis Henry Morgan studied adaptive strategies in different societies in order to compose a scheme for understanding cultural development. He argued that every human society had either passed through or would pass through three stages: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. By evaluating how a particular society conducted subsistence practices, studying the technologies employed and the tools used, the anthropologist could place that society into one of these stages and predict their future development.
What is the name of this theoretical approach?

Unilineal Cultural Evolution
Who advanced this theory by arguing the human societies could be usefully compared to biological organisms and that their development could be understood through the laws of evolution, an idea called Social Darwinism?
Herbert Spencer
state at least one problem that can be found with this approach to understanding cultures.
Not all cultures evolved the same. Some evolved through colonial/ imperial rule, others evolved and industrialized on their own.
What is the name of this approach, reflected in the perspective taken by Nancy Scheper-Hughes, that rejects extreme evolutionary schemes and extreme diffusion in order to focus on particular changes in specific human societies?
Historical Particularism
What is the name of the anthropologist who was instrumental in popularizing this approach?
Franz Boas
When learning about female genital modification, our class used the perspective of cultural relativism to try to understand this extreme practice from the point of view of those communities that practice it…..The idea that culture is a powerful force that shapes human behavior reflects which anthropological theory?
Cultural Determinism
Which prominent anthropologist encouraged this view of what determines human behavior?
A.L. Kroeber
In our reading, When Brothers Share a Wife, we read about a group of people that practice fraternal polyandry. In order to avoid dividing family land, to share agricultural and pastoral responsibilities between siblings, and to limit the number of offspring that need to be supported by the small amount of resources available to them, these people find this type of marriage most beneficial. They argue that this is the most successful survival strategy available to their group.
Which approach to explaining cultural practices does this interpretation reflect

Cultural Materialism
Which anthropologist is most closely associated with this school of theory?
Marvin Harris
What other cultural practice and corresponding interpretation can you think of that also reflects this type of anthropological interpretation?
social determinism.
When studying adaptive strategies, we identified some general cultural characteristics of foraging societies (egalitarian, band level socio-political organization, mobile, etc.),…… These anthropologists that consider environmental setting (the ecosystem) as key to defining cultural adaptations follow which type of theory in cultural anthropology?
Cultural Ecology
Who is the famous anthropologist that founded this type of ecological approach?
Julian Steward
We listened to a musical recording from Rapa Iti in which the singers used a specific type of vocal manipulation to create what sounds like the downward slipping of tones. Ethnomusicologist Pascal Meyer explained this phenomenon in terms of symbolic meaning found when this sound is associated with the lyrics of the songs, which are about the afterlife and the transition of the soul away from the living body.
What approach to explaining cultural practices does this example and interpretation exemplify?

Symbolic Anthropology
Can you provide an example of another cultural practice or belief and its associated interpretation that uses this type of theory?
Interpretive Anthropology.
In our discussion of power relations and methods of exerting control within society, we mentioned the idea of “weapons of the weak” coined by James Scott to describe those means by which peasants exert power from the bottom of society upwards. …… This example illustrates a non-determinist type of anthropological theory – one in which a person’s culture, or environment, or adaptive strategy, or particular history do not absolutely determine that individual’s fate, but through which we can see each individual as capable of exercising power and enacting change.
What is this type of theory called?

Agency Theory
What do we call applied anthropology that involves the application of methods and theory from physical anthropology in a legal setting?
Forensic Anthropology
Which of the following is the branch of Applied Anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimensions of, economic development?

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