Anthropology Ch 1-3 Terms

Anthropology
study of humankind in all times and places
Applied anthropology
use of an anthropological knowledge to solve practical problems; often for a specific client
Medical anthropology
brings theoretical and applied approach to cultural and biological anthropology to study of human health and disease
Cultural anthropology
study of patterns of human behavior, thoughts, and emotions; focus on humans as culture producing and reproducing creatures; also called social or socio-cultural anthropology
Linguistic anthropology
study of human languages; look at structure, history, and relation to social and and cultural contexts
Archaeology
culture study through recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data
Culture
society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions; used to make sense of experience and which generates behavior and are reflected in that behavior
Ethnography
detailed description of a particular culture based on fieldwork
Ethnology
studies more than one culture simultaneously for a comparitive point of view; the guys that sit on their couch
Participant observation
in ethnography, technique of learning a people’s culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied; also interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time
Bioarchaeology
study of human remains; bones, hair, teeth, skulls, skin fragments, and other tissue to determine the influence of culture and environment on human biological variation
Physical anthropology
systematic study of humans as biological organisms; also known as biological anthropology
Molecular anthropology
anthropological study of genes and genetic relationships; contribute to understanding human evolution, adaptation, and diversity
Culture resource management
branch of archaeology concerned with survey and/or evaluation of archaeological or historical remains that may be threatened by development or construction; also involved with policy surrounding the protection
Paleoanthropology
anthropological study of biological changes through time (evolution) to understand the origins and predecessors of the present human species
Primatology
study of living and fossil primates
Forensic anthropology
identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes
Hypothesis
tentative explanation of the relationships between certain phenomena
Theory
coherent statement that provides an explanatory framework for understanding; an explanation supported by a reliable body of data
Culture shock
in fieldwork, the anthropologist’s personal disorientation and anxiety that may result in depression
Culture
a society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, emotions, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior
Adaptation
a gradual process by which organisms adjust to the conditions of the locality in which they live
Cultural Adaptation
a complex of ideas, technologies, and activities that enables people to survive and even thrive in their environment
Enculturation
process by which a society’s culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society
Society
an organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture, and who act together for collective survival and well-being
Gender
cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentation between the sexes
Subculture
distinctive set of ideas, values and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, while still sharing common standards with that larger society
Ethnic Group
people who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on shared cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs
Ethnicity
term rooted in the Greek word Ethnikos (nation), and related to ethnos (custom); is the expression of the set of cultural ideas held by an ethnic group
Pluralistic Society
society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences
Symbols
sounds, gestures, marks, or other signs that are arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way
Social Structure
rule-governed relationships-with all their rights and obligations-that hold members of a society together. this includes households, families, associations, and power relations,including politics
Infrastructure
the economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices, and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living
Superstructure
a society’s shared sense of identity and worldview-the collective body of ideas, beliefs, and values by which members of a society make sense of the world; its shape, challenges, and opportunities-and understand their place in it. This includes religion and national ideology
Culture Relativism
idea that one must suspend judgement of other people’s practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms
Urgent Anthropology
ethnographic research that documents endangered cultures; also known as “savage ethnography”
Advocacy Anthropology
research that is community based and politically involved
Multi-Sited Ethnography
investigation and documentation of peoples and cultures embedded in the larger structures of a globalizing world, utilizing a range of methods in various locations of time and space
Digital Ethnography
an ethnographic study of social networks, communicative practices, and other cultural expressions in cyberspace by means of digital visual and audio technologies; also call cyberethnography or netnography
Ethnographic Fieldwork
extended on-location research to gather detailed and in-depth information on a society’s customary ideas, values, and practices through participation in its collective social life
Key Consultant
member of the society being studied who provides information that helps researchers understand the meaning of what they observe; early anthropologists referred to such individuals as “informants”
Eliciting Devices
activities and objects used to draw out individuals and encourage them to recall and share information
Theory
coherent statement that provides an explanatory framework for understanding; an explanation or interpretation supported by a reliable body of data
Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
vast collection of cross-indexed ethnographic, biocultural, and archaeological data catalogued by cultural characteristics and geographic locations; archived in about 300 libraries on microfiche or online
Idealist Perspective
theoretical approach stressing the primacy of superstructure in cultural research and analysis
Materialistic Perspective
theoretical approach stressing the primacy of infrastructure (material conditions) in cultural research and analysis
Quantitative Data
statistical or measurable data; demographic composition, types and quantities of crops grown, or ratio of spouses born and raised within or outside of community
Qualitative Data
nonstatistical information; personal life, customary beliefs and practices
a
A study of how people deal with consumer complaints
be a research interest of the
a. applied anthropologist

b. physical anthropologist

c. medical anthropologist

d. molecular anthropologist

e. ethnolinguist a

d
A “culture-bound” theory is _______________.

a. a prediction that is bound to be fulfilled in a particular culture

b. a theory developed by a cultural anthropologist rather than a physical anthropologist

c. a theory developed by a sociologist rather than a cultural anthropologist

d. a theory based on assumptions common to a particular culture rather than deriving from comparisons of many different cultures

e. a theory based on comparison of cultures

e
An archaeologist might attempt to study _______________.

a. material remains to reconstruct past cultures

b. present languages to reconstruct when they diverged from a parent stock

c. garbage to explain contemporary behavior

d. all of these

e. a and c

c
An ethnologist can be described as someone who _______________.
a. studies female behavior

b. studies cultures of the past

c. develops a theory of culture by comparing many specific cultures

d. studies primitive cultures

e. studies urban-industrial societies

a
Anthropologists doing fieldwork typically involve themselves in many different experiences. They try to investigate not just one aspect of culture (such as the political system) but how all aspects relate to each other (for example, how the political system fits with economic institutions, religious beliefs, etc.). This approach is called the _______________perspective.

a. holistic

b. ethnological

c. sociocultural

d. sociological

e. culture-bound

a
By comparing housework in different cultures, the ethnologist learns that _______________.

a. food foragers spend less time on household tasks than Westerners do

b. food foragers spend more time on household tasks than Westerners do

c. Westerners spend the least amount of time on household tasks as compared with other societies

d. there are no differences in the amount of time spent on household tasks between food foragers and industrialized Western societies

e. food foragers do not do housework

c
Clyde Snow is an anthropologist who _______________.

a. studied the Zapotec of Mexico

b. went to Truk and studied drinking behavior

c. used forensic evidence to investigate “disappearances” in Argentina

d. advised the U.S. government about how to implement the New Deal

e. found out that a questionnaire administered to rural Peruvians wasn’t accurate in what it implied about their behavior

d
Cultural anthropology is the study of patterns of human behavior. These standards _______________.

a. are biologically inherited

b. operate only when people are unconscious

c. can be studied only by sociologists

d. focus on humans as culture producing and re-producing creatures

e. are inherited and are studied initially by physical anthropologists

c
In 1948, anthropologists discovered that aborigines in Arnhem Land were able to sustain themselves well on an average workday of _______________.

a. approximately 8 hours

b. more than 10 hours

c. less than 6 hours

d. less than 2 hours

e. 10-12 hours

a
In general, ethnologists study _______________.

a. cultures as they have been observed, experienced, and discussed with persons whose cultures they seek to understand

b. animal behavior, with the aim of making useful comparisons with human behavior

c. various kinds of insects, because the social order of insect groups can tell us something about human social systems

d. the languages through which culture is transmitted, shaped, and experienced

e. the processes through which people come to understand the methods of social science

e
In human evolutionary studies, physical anthropologists known as _______________ look at fossilized skeletons of our ancestors to reconstruct the complex path of human evolution.

a. molecular anthropologists

b. archaeologists

c. forensic anthropologists

d. ethnohistorians

e. paleoanthropologists

d
The anthropologists who focus on humans as biological organisms, tracing their evolutionary development and looking at biological variations within the species, past and present are known as _______________.

a. archaeologists

b. linguistic anthropologists

c. biologists

d. physical anthropologists

e. forensic anthropologists

a
The branch of anthropology that studies human languages is called _______________.

a. linguistic anthropology

b. ethnology

c. ethnography

d. ethnolinguistics

e. ethnography of speaking

d
The end product of anthropological research is _______________.

a. culture-bound theories

b. a set of scientific facts

c. a clear understanding of the advantages of adaptation

d. a broad hypothesis about human beliefs, behavior and biology

e. a single case study that tests a theor

b
The protection of cultural resources as part of archaeology is called _______________.

a. ethnographic resource management

b. cultural resource management

c. cultural resource administration

d. cultural area management

e. cultural resource excavation

d
The work of medical anthropologists sheds light on the connections between _______________ both globally and locally.

a. human migration and the maintenance of health

b. culture and personality

c. mental and physical health

d. human health and political and economic forces

e. HMOs and political and economic forces

e
Which of the following are not primates?

a. Asian and African apes

b. tarsiers

c. monkeys

d. lemurs and lorises

e. all of the above are primates

e
Which of the following exemplifies the concept of a “hypothesis”? The light bulb failed to light because _______________.

a. the filament was broken

b. the power to the building was off

c. it was not screwed in tightly

d. it was poorly made

e. all of these

c
Which of the following would not indicate cooking or food processing at archaeological sites?

a. pottery

b. hearths

c. temple ruins

d. animal bone fragments

e. concentrations of charcoal

a
A detailed description of a particular culture based on fieldwork is called _______________.

a. ethnography
b. biography

c. ethnology

d. ethnohistory

e. ethnoarchaeology

c
Although human beings always have been interested in other human beings, anthropology has emerged as a tradition of scientific inquiry over the last _______________.

a. 10,000 years

b. 700 years

c. 150 years

d. 50 years

e. 30 years

b
Anthropology is different from other disciplines that study humans because _______________.

a. it was the first science to study human beings

b. it synthesizes data from many fields in an effort to describe human behavior as a whole

c. it has greater attention to details

d. it requires a longer period of training

e. it focuses primarily on contemporary Western societies

f
Ethnographic research has shown that women in food foraging societies devote much more time to domestic chores than contemporary North American women do.

True

False

e
A culture must satisfy basic needs such as _______________.

a. the distribution of necessary goods and services

b. biological continuity through reproduction, and enculturation of functioning adults

c. maintenance of order within a society, and between a society and outsiders

d. motivation to survive

e. all of the above

a
A high rate of crime is a sign that a culture is not satisfying the people’s ______________________.

a. needs and expectations

b. military and civil needs

c. social and political needs

d. political and governmental needs

e. biological and psychological needs

b
A sign, sound, emblem, or other thing that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way is called

a. a myth

b. a symbol

c. an omen

d. a subculture

e. an ethnic group

d
A society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences is called a _______________ society.

a. multilinear

b. multi-cultural

c. class-based

d. pluralistic

e. stratified

b
According to Bronislaw Malinowski, the nature of an institution is determined by its _______________.

a. structure

b. function

c. culture

d. superstructure

e. infrastructure

d
Among the Kapauku Papuans of New Guinea, the fact that an attempt to eliminate warfare (which would create a balanced sex ratio) would affect the practice of polygyny, which would affect the economy (since women raise pigs, and the more wives a man has the more pigs he can keep), shows that culture is ________

a. materialistic

b. relative

c. pluralistic

d. integrated

e. enculturated

e
Analyses of human skeletal remains from the Maya city of Tikal reveal that, on average, _______________.

a. taller individuals were usually of a lower social class than shorter individuals

b. females interred in less elaborate graves were taller than those in higher class burials

c. males and females were the same height, regardless of class differences

d. males interred in less elaborate graves were taller than those from simple graves

e. males interred in more elaborate graves were taller than those from simple graves

b
Anthropologists use the term _______________ to refer to the cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes.

a. masculine

b. gender

c. sex

d. feminine

e. bisexual

b
As a result of _______________ work, in 1981, the Apaches were able to move into houses that had been designed with their participation, for their specific needs.

a. Walter Goldschmidt’s

b. George Esber’s

c. David Maybury-Lewis’s

d. Bronislaw Malinowski’s

e. Margaret Mead’s

d
Because humans have culture, they are able to live in which of the following environments?

a. deserts

b. mountains

c. the Arctic

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

a
Because subsistence practices involve tapping into available resources to satisfy a society’s basic needs, this aspect of culture is known as _______________.

a. infrastructure

b. subculture

c. social structure

d. superstructure

e. acculturation

a
China, with the world’s largest population, is a ______________________ society.

a. pluralist

b. multinational

c. Muslim

d. minority

e. radical

d
Cultural relativism is essential as ________________.

a. symbolic significance

b. a cultural adaptation method

c. a part of the acculturation process

d. a research tool

e. a cultural avoidance mechanism

d
Cultures must strike a balance between _______________.

a. functions and structures

b. society and subculture

c. families’ kinship and individuality

d. individuals’ needs and desires and those of society

e. environment and geography

b
In many Native American societies, _______________:

a. only males are recognized

b. more than two genders are recognized

c. gender is not a designated category

d. only females are recognized

e. children are believed to have more than one gender

a
In regards to the concept of cultural relativism, anthropologist _______________ emphasized that “…one does not avoid making judgments, but rather postpones them in order to make informed judgments later.”

a. David Maybury-Lewis

b. Daniel Day-Lewis

c. Francis L.K. Shu

d. E.E. Evans-Pritchard

e. A.F.C. Wallace

b
Much of human behavior is based on ____________________.

a. integration

b. symbols

c. kinship

d. persecution

e. politics

e
Society is held together by _______________ known as its social structure.

a. life-long relationships

b. a variety of alliances.

c. the bonding together of several groups

d. the adherence to a political philosophy

e. rule-governed relationships

c
The Amish may be used as an example of subcultural variation because _______________.

a. they are racially different

b. they share the values of thrift, hard work, independence, and close family ties that Americans respect

c. they maintain a distinctive way of life that emphasizes agrarian living and loyalty to fellow Amish rather than to the state

d. they participate in a rite of passage called rumschpringe

e. all of the above

a
The belief that one’s own way of life is superior to others is _______________.

a. ethnocentrism

b. cultural relativism

c. egocentrism

d. kulturpride

e. ethnic-centeredness

a
The term ___________________________ is the rule-governed relationships that hold members of a society together.

a. social structure

b. infrastructure

c. superstructure

d. external structure

e. internal structure.

b
The term “gender” refers to _______________.

a. biological differences between males and females

b. cultural meanings assigned to the biological differences between the sexes

c. a method of determining sex

d. the sexual tendency of society

e. biological meanings assigned to the cultural differences between females and males

e
The ultimate function of all cultures is to fulfill _____________________________

a. Desires of the people in the culture

b. Models of culture held by the society

c. The acculturation process

d. Needs of the political leaders of the society

e. Commonly held biological and psychological needs.

c
When a culture becomes too rigid and does not change to meet the needs of its people on a long-term basis, it is less likely to _____________.

a. multiply

b. develop innovations

c. survive

d. become ethnocentric

e. govern well

a
When groups within a society function with their own distinctive standards of behavior, we refer to it as _______________.

a. subcultural variation

b. social structure

c. gender differences

d. cultural materialism

e. ethnocentrism

Cross-cultural, holistic, and historical perspective
How is anthropology different from other social science disciplines?
Holistic perspective
Fundamental principle of anthropology; allows anthropologists to focus on all aspects of the human
experience in all places and times,
And prevents their own cultural ideas and values from distorting their research.
Physical or Biological Anthropology
Molecular Anthropology,
Paleoanthropology,
Biocultural approach,
Primatology,
and
Forensic Anthropology are types of this basic branch of anthropology,
Human Growth, Adaptation, and Variation
branch of physical anthropology that focuses on biological growth and the environmental impact on growth process
Biocultural approach
paleoanthropology approach that deals with the interaction of biology and culture
cultural anthropology
Ethnography,
Ethnology, and
Applied Cultural Anthropology are types of this basic branch of anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology
Descriptive Linguistics,
HIstorical Linguistics,
Language in Social and Cultural Settings, and
Applied Linguistic Anthropology
Descriptive Linguistics
linguistic anthropology branch that focuses on study of language dissection by recording
HIstorical Linguistics
linguistic anthropology branch that focuses on study of all features of a language at certain time; change
Language in Social and Cultural Settings
linguistic anthropology branch that focuses on study of language in social and cultural context; ebonics, etc.
Applied Linguistic Anthropology
linguistic anthropology branch that focuses on preservation and revival of languages at risk
Archaeology
Historical Archaeology,
Bioarchaeology, Contemporary Archaeology, Cultural Resource Management, Ethnobotany,
and Zooarchaeology are all types of this basic branch of anthropology
Historical Linguistics
Linguistic
branch that studies all of the features of a language at certain time; with a focus on a language’s change
Contemporary Archaeology
archaeology branch that studies modern society; garbage; difference in what people say they do and what they actually do
Ethnobotany
archaeology branch that studies how a particular culture uses plants
Zooarchaeology
archaeology branch that studies tracks and animal remains from excavation site
Franz Boas
He was a notable anthropologist and ethnographist that made the study of anthropology more common in colleges. His first fieldwork was among the Intuit (Eskimos) in Arctic Canada in 1883 and 1884. He authored many publications, founded organizations and journals, and taught two generations of great anthropologists. He was a forward thinker; RACISM and ethnocentrism were two ideas he felt were dangerous. He proved that white supremacy theories were wrong, and used anthropology to combat prejudice* pioneer in VISUAL anthropology
Matilda Coxe Stevenson
She was an ethnographist and anthropologist who was a founder of the North American anthropology society and the founder of the Women’s Anthropological Society- the first professional scientific women’s group ever. She did fieldwork with the Zuni indians in Arizona, and became one of the FIRST WOMEN ever to receive a full-time position in science. She was also an advocate for women’s rights in the 1800s.* pioneer in VISUAL anthropology
Jane Goodall
a primatologist who studied CHIMPANZEES. She used her work to prove that the behavior of the monkeys is not dissimilar to that of humans, and she strongly advocated for their rights as well as the preservation of their habitats.
Clyde C. Snow
one of the most widely known FORENSIC anthropologists. He has worked on a number of big cases in his career, but the most important thing was his work establishing the FIRST FORENSIC TEAM TO DOCUMENT HUMAN RIGHTS cases around the world in 1984. He helped prove that death squads were responsible for more than 9,000 deaths in ARGENTINA. His expert testimony a year later helped convict the military officers responsible. He was a pioneer in the field and anthropologists have since become increasingly involved with human rights abuses in all parts of the world.
Fieldwork
What is the ethnographer’s best possible method to understand a society’s way of life?
adapting
The growth of body hair for protection and specialized teeth in mammals are examples of organisms doing what through the process of natural selection?
enculturation
What is the culture-learning process through socialization called?
survival
Why does a shared culture affect everyone within the society?
Integrated
Because within the Kapauku culture;
“it takes pigs, by which wealth is measured, to get wives, without whom pigs cannot be raised in the first place.” it is a perfect example of which type of cultural system?
Bronislaw Malinowski
was a wise, wacky creature determined to make it in European society. His years spent in the Trobriand Islands, and the quality and quantity of his data SET NEW SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS for anthropology. Before Malinowski’s trip, Europeans had wrong ideas about the people of the islands, calling them “savages.” In his time there, he discovered that they actually had families, and their BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL needs were the same.
Concluded these things about culture
-A culture must provide for biological needs such as the need for food and procreation.
-A culture must provide for instrumental needs, such as the need for law and education.
-A culture must provide for integrative needs, such as religion and artngs about culture:
devestation
Cultural change or acculturation can lead to
Internal colonies
Native American Indian and Eskimo are some example of ________ in the United States.
Acculturation
the process of cultural change which takes place in traditional societies as they come in contact with more powerful cultures.
Extinction
Acculturation is often devastating because it often leaves the indigenouspeoples feeling demoralized, inferior and unequal, in poverty, and desperate, and can also lead to __________ of their culture.
Margaret Mead
Known as the first anthropologist to study ACCULTERATION was ________ in her 1932 fieldwork with the Omaha Indians of Nebraska. Studying acculturation revealed its complex and often disturbing outcomes.
She was also a notable pioneer of fieldwork anthropology who supported the use of VIDEO CAMERAS in research and helped develop the idea of studying cultures at a distance.
Hortense Powdermaker
Went to London to study Anthropology under Malinowski. Researched racially segregated town in Mississippi in 1930s. Studied how mass media shaped people’s world views. Focused on the film industry and Hollywood (1946-47)
Applied anthropology
Through their this branch of anthropology, anthropologists work with indigenous communities, peasants, and social groups. The anthropologists often become advocates for those in the culture they are researching. They help the indigenous peoples fight for land rights, social, economic, and cultural rights.
Surveys
Data gathering method in which the anthropologist
spends enough time in an area, and can compose a questionnaire that is culturally relevant. They are used as a small part of a large research strategy.
Interviews
Data gathering method in which the anthropologist uses
formal-carefully notated and structured question and answer sessions or informal- open-ended, everyday life conversations to gather information in a conversation
Mapping
Data gathering method in which the anthropologist makes
detailed, geographic maps that document culturally relevant landscapes of the people being studied.
Photographing and Filming
Data gathering method in which the anthropologist
uses cameras, recording devices, or computers to document observations
social acceptance
An ethnographer’s success depends on this because
the best research comes from ethnographers who develop a good rapport and are taken in by the people they study.
true
Culture is learned and not inherited. true or false
ethical
The first and most important ________ responsibility of the ethnographer is to the community of individuals that they study.
American Anthropological Association’s Code of Ethics
or (AAA)

This quote: “Anthropological researchers must do everything in their power to ensure that their research does not harm the safety, dignity, or privacy of the people with whom they work, conduct research, or perform other professional activities.” is from the ________ and it just means to
ensure that anthropological research does not negatively impact the people being studied
ethical
An ________ rule of the anthropologist is to provide information as to the nature, purpose, and potential impact of the proposed research is an important step toward gaining a community’s informed consent or formal recorded agreement to participate in the research.

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