Anthropology Exam 1 Review

Flashcards
Etic
The research strategy that emphasizes the observers rather than the “natives” explanations categories. and criteria of significance
Emic
The research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of significance
Participant Observation
A characteristic ethnographic technique; taking part in the events one is observing, describing and analyzing
Anthropology
The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
Archaeology
The branch of anthropology that reconstructs, describes and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains, best known for the study of prehistory
Culture
Traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs; distinctly human; transmitted through learning
Cultural Relativism
The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members’ beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action
Cultural Anthropology
The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to view one’s own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards
Ethnography
Fieldwork in a particular culture
Ethnology
The theoretical, comparative study of society and culture; compares cultures in time and space
Informed consent
Agreement to take part in research, after the people being studied have been told about that research’s purpose, native procedures and potential impact on them
Informant
A person who gives information to another
Enculturation
The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
Linguistics
The branch of anthropology that studies linguistic variation in time and space including interrelations between language and culture
Holism
The study of the whole of the human condition: past, present and future; biology, society, language and culture
Globalization
The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems
Primatology
The study of the biology, behavior, social life and evolution of monkeys, apes and other nonhuman primates
Paleontology
Study of ancient life through the fossil record
Physical(Biological) Anthropology
The branch of anthropology that studies human biological diversity in time and space for instance, hominid evolution, human genetics, human biological adaptation; also includes primatology
Values
Estimate the monetary worth of something

Consider someone or something to be important or beneficial; have a high opinion of

Symbols
Something verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else with which it has no necessary natural connection.
Norms
Cultural standards or guidelines that enable individuals to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a given society
Four field approach
The anthropological approach with four major fields- Archaeology, Linguistics, Physical/Biological and Cultural
Diffusion
Borrowing between cultures either directly or through intermediaries
Edward Burnett Tylor
English anthropologists that founded cultural anthropology
Franz Boas
German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the “Father of American Anthropology
Historical Archaeology
Form of archaeology dealing with places things, and issues from the past or present when written records and oral traditions can inform and contextualize cultural material
Prehistoric Archaeology
The study of the past before historical records began. It is a field of research that looks at all the pre-urban societies of the world.
Forensics
The branch of physical anthropology in which anthropological data, criteria and techniques are used to determine the sex, age, genetic population or parentage of skeletal or biological materials questions of civil or criminal law
Paleoanthropology
The study of hominin evolution and human life as revealed by the fossil record.
Excavation
Digging through the layers of deposits that make up an archaeological site.
Relative Dating
Dating technique that establishes a time frame in relation to other strata or materials rather than absolute dates in numbers
Absolute Dating
Dating technique that establish dates in numbers or ranges of numbers; examples include radiometric methods of 14C, K/A, 238U, TL and ESR Dating

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