Anthropology Test #2

Homo erectus
“First upright man” – more intelligent and adaptable than homo habilis, skillful hunters, invented more sophisticated tools for digging, scraping, and cutting. First hominids to migrate, first to use fire, first to provide warmth, cook, and frighten away attacking animals. Developed the beginning of spoken language, named objects, places, animals, and plant and exchanged ideas.
Homo sapiens
The current human species that evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. It includes archaic forms such as (now extinct) Neanderthals and all modern humans.
Distinct, muscular group within genus Homo inhabiting Europe and SW Asia from 30,000-125,000 yrs ago. Depicted in media as wild and hairy. Their brains were larger than modern humans, and faces and skulls look different because they had large noses and their teeth projected forward. They had sloping forehead, prominent brow ridges, and bony mass on the back of skull to support big neck muscles.
Multiregional Hypothesis
The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world.
“Out of Africa” Hypothesis
The idea that modern humans evolved from a second migration out of Africa that occurred about 100,000 years ago, replacing all the regional populations of hominids derived from the first migrations of Homo erectus out of Africa about 1.5 million years ago.
cave art
Served a more meaningful role that just showing vivid scenes from daily life. Represented religious beliefs, and hoped their images had magical powers that would bring hunters good luck. The three basic themes were animals, human representation, and signs. Color was provided by charcoal for black and ocher for yellow, red, and brown.
World Heritage Sites
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity
blade technique
A technique of stone tool manufacture by which long, parallel-sided flakes are struck off the edges of a specially prepared core.
flint knapper
A person that makes stone tools.
cognitive capacity
A broad concept including intelligence, educability, concept formation, self-awareness, self-evaluation, attention span, sensitivity in discrimination, and creativity.
primary innovation
The creation, invention, or chance discovery of a completely new idea, method, or device.
secondary innovation
The deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device.
An evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance.
Fertile Crescent
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates.
Oldest Neolithic community in the West Bank between Israel and Jordan
a type of society marked by the presence of cities, social classes, and the state (government).
the largest ancient Mayan city in the northern part of Guatemala, Central America. Built on a broad limestone terrace in a rainforest.
grave goods
Items such as utensils, figurines, and personal possessions, symbolically placed in the grave for the deceased person’s use in the afterlife.
hydraulic theory
The theory that explains civilization’s emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class.
action theory
The theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization’s emergence.
Ota Benga
“Savage” Pygmie man shipped to the Americas (from the Congo) by Samuel Verner, put in the Bronx Zoo in the St. Louis World’s Fair, exhibited in the monkey house (racism).
A doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics.
thrifty genotype
Human genotype that permits efficient storage of fat to draw on in times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen.
The chemical responsible for dark skin pigmentation that helps protect against damage from ultraviolet radiation.
Johann Blumenbach
German physician (1752-1840) Considered a rounder skull was the “perfect” specimen in which resembled God’s original creation. People of Caucasus region were the most beautiful in the world..concluded that the Caucasus Mountain Range between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea of southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (where skull was located) was the place of human origins.
A series of beneficial adjustments to the environment.
The meanings and elaborations given to a particular physical state.
Refers to a specific pathology; a physical or biological abnormality.
culture areas
Geographic regions in which a number of societies follow similar patterns of life.
food foraging
Hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods.
The cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
Breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses, llamas, or camels.
The cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production. Involves using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals.
carrying capacity
The number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques.
Large-scale businesses involved in food production, including farming, contract farming, seed supply, agrichemicals, farm machinery, distribution, processing, and marketing. Also known as corporate farming, it stands in contrast to smaller family-owned farms.

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