Biological Anthropology: Chapter 1

Flashcards
primate
member of the mammalian order Primates, including prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans, defined by a suite of anatomical and behavioral traits
evolution
a change in the frequency of a gene and trait in a population over multiple generations
biological anthropology
the study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework; sometimes called physical anthropology (includes paleoanthropology, skeletal biology and osteology, paleopathology, forensic anthropology, primatology, and human biology)
hominin
a member of the primate family Hominidae, distinguished by bipedal posture and, in more recently evolved species, a large brain
adaptation
a trait that increases the reproductive success of an organism, produced by natural selection in the context of a particular environment
anthropology
the study of humankind in a cross-cultural context; includes the subfields of cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, archaeology, and biological anthropology
culture
the sum total of learned traditions, values, and beliefs that groups of people (and a few species of highly intelligent animals) possess
biocultural anthropology
the study of interaction between biology and culture, which plays a role in most human traits
cultural anthropology
the study of human societies in a cross-cultural; focuses on how people lead their daily lives (the heart of anthropology)
ethnology
subfield of cultural anthropology; the study of human societies and of the behavior of people within these societies
ethnography
the practice of ethnology; the describing of culture
linguistic anthropology
the study of the form, function, and social context of language (focus on language use and the role of language in shaping culture)
archaeology
the study of how people used to live based on the materials/artifacts left behind
scope of biological anthropology
includes related disciplines: paleoanthropology, skeletal biology and osteology, paleopathology, forensic anthropology, primatology, and human biology
paleoanthropology
the study of the fossil record of ancestral humans and their primate kin
osteology
the study of the skeleton
skeletal biology
study of the human skeleton (involves patterns/processes of human growth, physiology, and development in addition to anatomy)
paleopathology
the study of disease in ancient human populations
bioarchaeology
the study of human remains in an archaeological context (study the effects of trauma, epidemics, nutritional deficiencies, and infectious diseases)
forensic anthropology
the study of the identification of skeletal remains and of the means by which the individual died
primatology
study the anatomy, physiology, behavior, and genetics of both living and extinct monkeys, apes, and prosimians (nonhuman primates)
human biology
subfield of biological anthropology dealing with human growth and development, adaptation to environmental extremes, and human genetics
physical anthropology
the study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework

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