Chapter 1 – What is anthropology?

Flashcards
Holistic
Interested in the whole of the human condition past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture.
Culture
Traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs; distinctly human; transmitted through learning.
Anthropology
The study of humans and its immediate ancestors throughout time and space.
Anything we touch, modify, or inhabit.
What are the four branches of anthropology?
1. Cultural (Sociocultural)
2. Physical (Biological)
3. Archaeological
4. Linguistic
Cultural Anthropology
The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
Archaeological Anthropology
The branch of anthropology that reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains; best known for the study of prehistory. Also known as “archaeology.”
Biological Anthropology
The branch of anthropology that studies human biological diversity in time and space – for instance, hominid evolution, human genetics, human biological adaptation; also includes primatology (behaviorand evolution of monkeys and apes). Also called physical anthropology.
Linguistic Anthropology
The branch of anthropology that studies linguistic variation in time and space, including interrelations between language and culture; includes historical linguistics and sociolinguistics.
How does anthropology differ from the other social sciences, such as sociology?
Anthropologists:
Seek to see culture live through talking, (methods: observation, participant observation, ethnography, and interviewing) on a smaller scale, using qualitative methods, such as the interview. This is the non-Western, non-industrialized concept.

Sociologists:
Use surveys, scheduled interviews, and other governmental methods such as the census, to gain information about larger societies, using quantitative methods, such as statistics. This is the Western-industrialized concept.

How is anthropology similar to sociology?
Ethnography is used by both.
Anthropologists can also use surveys, like sociologists do.
What role does holism play in cultural anthropology, and why is it important?
Holism is important because it refers to the study of the whole of the human condition, past, present, and future. Since culture is ever-changing, influenced by time and transmission of the ideas, it is important to look at the group as a whole, not just currently, to see how things have changed, how they are in the present, and how they’re likely to change.
Who is Franz Boas?
Referred to as, “Father of American/Modern Anthropology.”
The study of linkages and systems, between people and external forces, is part of the subject matter of modern anthropology.

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