Chapter 1: What Is Physical Anthropology?

Flashcards
culture
learned behavior that is transmitted from person to person
artifacts
material objects from past cultures
language
a set of written or spoken symbols that refer to things (people, places, concepts, etc.) other than themselves
sociolinguistics
the science of investigating language’s social contexts
biocultural approach
the scientific study of the interrelationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culture
hominids
a group of extinct and living bipedal primates in the family Hominidae
primates
a group of mammls in the order Primates that have complex behavior, varied forms of locomotion, and a unique suite of traits, including larger brains, forward-facing eyes, fingernails, and reduced snouts
bipedalism
walking on two legs
nonhoning canine
an upper canine that as part of a nonhoning chewing mechanism, is not sharpened against the lower third permolar
material culture
the part of culture that is expressed as objects that humans use to manipulate environments
data
evidence gathered to help answer questions, solve problems, and fill gaps in scientific knowledge
hypotheses
testable statements that potentially explain specific phenomena observed in the natural world
scientific method
an empirical research method in which data is gathered from observations of phenomena, hypotheses are formulated and tested, and conclusions are drawn that validate or modify the original hypotheses
empirical
verified through observation and experiment
theory
a set of hypotheses that have been rigorously tested and validated, leading to their establishment as a generally accepted explanation of specific phenomena
anatomical
pertaining to an organism’s physical structure
arboreal
tree-dwelling
morphology
physical shape and apperance
scientific law
a theory that becomes absolutely true
anthropology
the study of humankind, viewed from the perspective of all people and all times
archaeology
the study of historic or prehistoric human populations through the analysis of material remains
biological anthropology
the study of the evolution, variation, and adaptation of humans and their past and present relatives
cultural anthropology
the study of modern human societies through the analysis of the origins, evolution, and variation of culture
forensic anthropology
the scientific examination of skeletons in hope of identifying the people whose bodies they came from
linguistic anthropology
the study of the construction, use, and form of language in human populations

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