Cultural Anthropology: A Toolkit for a Global Age chapter 1

Flashcards
Anthropology
the study of the full scope of human diversity, past and present, and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds better understand one another.
Anthropos
human
logos
study
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one’s own culture or way of life is normal and natural; using one’s own culture to evaluate and judge the practices and ideals of others.
ethnographic fieldwork
a primary research strategy in cultural anthropology involving living with a community of people over an extended period to better understand their lives.
four-field approach
the use of four interrelated disciplines to study humanity: physical anthropology, archaeological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and cultural anthropology.
Holism
the anthropological commitment to consider the full scope of human life, including culture, biology, history, and language, across space and time. (12)
physical anthropology
the study of humans from a biological perspective, particularly focused on human evolution. (13)
paleoanthropology
the study of the history of human evolution through the fossil record. (14)
primatology
the study of living nonhuman primates as well as primate fossils to better understand human evolution. (14)
archaeology
the investigation of the human past by means of excavating and analyzing artifacts. (15)
Prehistoric Archaeology
the reconstruction of human behavior in the distant past (before written records) through the examination of artifacts.
Historic Archaeology
The exploration of the more recent past through an examination of physical remains and artifacts as well as written or oral records.
Linguistic Anthropology
The study of human language in the past and present.
Descriptive Linguists
Those who analyze languages and their components parts.
Historic Linguists
Those who study how language changes over time within a culture and how languages travel across cultures.
Sociolinguists
Those who study language in its social and cultural contexts.
Cultural Anthropology
The study of people communities behaviors beliefs and institution including how people make meaning as they live work and play together.
Participant Observation
A key anthropological research strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life of the people being studied.
Ethnology
The analysis and comparison of ethnographic data across cultures.
Globalization
The worldwide intensification of interactions and increased movement of money, people, goods, and ideas within and across national borders.
Time-space compression
The rapid innovation of communication and transportation technologies associated with globalization that transforms the way people think about space and time.
Flexible Accumulation
The increasingly flexible strategies that corporations use to accumulate profits in an era of globalization, enable by innovative communications and transportation technologies.
Increasing Migration
The accelerated movement of people within and between countries.
Uneven Development
The unequal distribution of the benefits of globalization.
RAPID CHANGE
The dramatic transformations of economics, politics, and culture characteristic of contemporary globalization.
Climate Change
Changes to the earth’s climate, including global worming produced primarily by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases crated by human activity such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation
Culture
A system of knowledge, beliefs, patterns of behavior, artifacts, and institutions that are created, learned and shared by a group of people.
Enculturation
The process of learning culture.
norms
Ideas or rules about how people should behave in particular situations or toward certain other people.
values
Fundamental beliefs about what is important, true, or beautiful, and what makes a good life.
Symbol
anything that signifies something else
mental maps
Ideas or rules about how people should behave in particular situations or toward certain other people.
Cultural Relativism
Understanding a group’s beliefs and practices within their own cultural content, without making judgments.
Unilineal Cultural Evolution
The Theory proposed by nineteenth-century anthropologists that all cultures naturally evolve through the same sequence of stages form simple to complex.
1.savage 2.barbarian 3. civilized
Historical Particularism (franz boas)
The idea, attributed to Franz Boas, that culture develop in specific ways because of their unique histories.
-diffusion-borrowing of cultural traits
Structural Functionalism
A conceptual framework positing that each element of society serves a particular function to keep the entire system in equilibrium.
Interpretivist Approach
A conceptual framework that sees culture primarily as a symbolic system of deep meaning.
(Clifford Geertz)
Power vs
Stratification

The ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence.

The uneven distribution of resources and privileges among participant in a group or culture.

Hegemony
The ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force.
Agency
The potential power of individuals and groups to contest cultural norms, values, symbols, mental maps of reality, institutions, and structures of power.
Cosmopolitanism
A global outlook emerging in response to increasing globalization.
Ethnographic Fieldwork
A primary research strategy in cultural anthropology involving living with a community of people an an extended period to better understand their lives.
Salvage Ethnography
Fieldwork strategy developed by Franz Boas to rapidly collect cultural, material, linguistic, and biological information about U.S. Native populations being devastated by Western expansion.
Participant Observation
A key anthropological research strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life of the people being studied.
reflexivity
A critical self-examination of the role the anthropologist plays and an awareness that one’s identity affects one’s fieldwork and theoretical analyses.
Literature Review
The process of reading all the available published material about a research site and/or research issues, usually done before fieldwork begins.
Anthropologist’s Toolkit
The tools needed to conduct fieldwork, including a notebook, pen, camera, voice recorder, and a dictionary.
Quantitative Data
Statistical information about a community that can be measured and compared.
Qualitative Data
Descriptive data drawn from nonstatistical sources, including participant observation, personal stories, interviews, and life histories.
Rapport
The relationships of trust and familiarity developed with member of the community being studied.
key informant
A community member who advises the anthropologist on community issues, provides feedback, and warns against cultural miscues.
Interview
A research strategy of gathering data through formal or informal conversation with informants
Life History
A form of interview that traces the biography of a person over time, examining changes and illuminating the interlocking network of relationships in the community.
Survey
An information-gathering tool for quantitative data analysis
Kinship analysis
A traditional strategy of examining genealogies to uncover the relationships built upon structures such as marriage and family ties.
Social network analysis
A method for examining relationships in a community, often conducted by identifying who people turn to in times of need.
Field Notes
The anthropologist’s written observations and reflections on places, practices, events and interviews.
Mapping vs built environment
Mapping
The Analysis of the physical and/or geographic space where fieldwork is being conducted.

Built Environment
The intentionally designed features of human settlement, including buildings, transportation and public service infrastructure, and public spaces

0’s
Zeros

Elements of a story or a picture that are not told or seen and yet offer key insights into issues that might be too sensitive to discuss or display publicly

Mutual Transformation
The potential for both the anthropologist and the members of the community being studied to be transformed by the interactions of fieldwork.
etic vs emic
Etic

Description of local behavior and beliefs from the anthropologist’s perspective in ways that can be compared across cultures.

Emic

An approach to gathering data that investigates how local people think and how they understand the world.
Etic

Description of local behavior and beliefs from the anthropologist’s perspective in ways that can be compared across cultures.

ethnology vs polyvocality
Ethnology

The analysis and comparison of ethnographic data across cultures.

Polyvocality

The practice of using many different voices in ethnographic writing and research question development, allowing the reader to hear more directly from the people in the study.

Informed Consent
Informed Consent
A key strategy for protecting those being studied by ensuring that they are fully informed of the goals of the project and have clearly indicated their consent to participate.
Anonymity
Anonymity

Protecting the identities of the people involved in a study by changing or omitting their names or other identifying characteristics.

STUDYING CULTURE
https://quizlet.com/71404565/anthropology-ch-3-studying-culture-flash-cards/
LANGUAGE

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