Cultural Anthropology: A Toolkit for a Global Age Chapter 2

Flashcards
Culture
A system of knowledge, beliefs, patterns of behavior, artifacts, and institutions that are created, learned and shared by a group of people.
Enculturation
The process of learning culture.
Norms
Ideas or rules about how people should behave in particular situations or toward certain other people.
Values
Fundamental beliefs about what is important, true, or beautiful, and what makes a good life.
Symbol
Anything that signifies something else.
Mental Maps of Reality
Cultural classifications of what kinds of people and things exist, and the assignment of meaning to those classifications.
Cultural Relativism
Understanding a group’s beliefs and practices within their own cultural content, without making judgments.
Unilineal Cultural Evolution
The Theory proposed by nineteenth-century anthropologists that all cultures naturally evolve through the same sequence of stages form simple to complex.
Historical Particularism
The idea, attributed to Franz Boas, that culture develop in specific ways because of their unique histories.
Structural Functionalism
A conceptual framework positing that each element of society serves a particular function to keep the entire system in equilibrium.
Interpretivist Approach
A conceptual framework that sees culture primarily as a symbolic system of deep meaning.
Power
The ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence.
Stratification
The uneven distribution of resources and privileges among participant in a group or culture.
Hegemony
The ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force.
Agency
The potential power of individuals and groups to contest cultural norms, values, symbols, mental maps of reality, institutions, and structures of power.
Cosmopolitanism
A global outlook emerging in response to increasing globalization.

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