Cultural Anthropology: Chapter 1

Flashcards
Anthropological linguistics studies both past and present languages. Which subgroup analyzes both the phonetic and the grammatical systems of contemporary language?
descriptive linguistics
Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism are two basic modes anthropologists can use when attempting to understand another culture. Which of the following definitions correctly summarizes the approach that is most strongly recommended by anthropologists, despite certain limitations?
Cultural relativism means that an anthropologist uses the culture’s own standards as a way of understanding it
Anthropologists need to distinguish between “emic” and “etic” approaches to their work. Which situation describes an “emic” approach to studying a polygamous religious group?
researching the group’s religious texts that justifies and recommends polygamy
As a whole, the academic discipline of anthropology is
concerned with the biology and the cultures of humans, past and present
What is the primary objective of ethnology?
to uncover the general cultural rules of society
Which is an example of an ecofact?
human skeletons found by archeologists researching an ancient ceremonial ground
Which one of the following generally cannot be removed from an archaeological site?
features
Which one of the following is a sub-branch of physical anthropology?
paleoanthropology
Anthropology is valuable from a societal point of view because
it can contribute to solutions to pressing social problems
Cultural anthropology can be summarized as
anthropology that uses both ethnography and ethnology to deal with specific contemporary cultures
What is the fundamental difference between physical anthropologists and archaeologists?
Physical anthropologists study human biology; archaeologists study artifacts.
According to the text, what differentiates anthropology from other scientific fields of study such as biology, psychology, or sociology?
Anthropology is the only discipline that seeks to define, in the broadest sense, what it is to be human.
How has the concept of “race” changed in anthropology from the start of the 20th century to the present day?
Contemporary anthropologists see early 20th century race classifications as an overly simplified description of our knowledge of genetics.
Ethnolinguistics is also known by the name
cultural linguistics
Holism is a distinguishing feature of anthropology’s approach to studying human groups. This approach means that anthropologists are trained to
look at all of the parts of a cultural system to see how they are interrelated
Which branch of anthropology draws on the study of epidemiology to learn about how human biological variations influence adaptation?
physical anthropology
Early pioneers in anthropology include Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Edward Sapir. They are known for their groundbreaking work in the subspecialty area of
psychological anthropology
A construction company breaks ground in a field to build a shopping mall, only to discover the foundations of what appears to be an abandoned village. What type of specialist anthropologist is most likely to be called in to assist the company in obeying the law?
contract anthropologist
Anthropologists generally agree that there is a difference between what people say they do, and what they actually do. Which study would test this hypothesis accurately?
Comparing a neighborhood’s responses to a survey about their recycling habits with data from the recycling company that collects from the neighborhood
How can every anthropologist make a valuable contribution to society today?
Every anthropologist has some experience in thinking about cultural complexity and adaptation.

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