Essentials of Physical Anthropology Chapter 9

early african hominins
larger, 2 million years ago, better stone tools
an evolutionary grouping of organisms with similar adaptive patterns
homo erectus body attributes
taller, weighs more, heavier.
homo erectus brain size
700 to 1,250 cubic cm | average 900 cubic cm
cranial shape of homo erectus: cranial bone
cranial shape of homo erectus: brow ridge
supraorbital torus
cranial shape of homo erectus: nuchal torus
in the back
cranial shape of homo erectus: width of cranium
the first homo erectus discovery is from
discovery in east turkana
almost complete skull
homo ergaster discovery
erectus skeleton found in east, west turkana
nariokotome discovery
west turkana. most complete homo erectus skeleton ever found. boy, 12yo.
olduvai discovery
Louis Leakey found skull in olduvai | thinner cranium than asian homo erectus
gona discovery
east africa (ethiopia) | first female pelvis | prenatal brain growth
daka discovery
ethiopia | more like asian
The most important homo erectus discoveries from africa were in
east turkana, nariokotome, olduvai gorge.
age of the east african homo erectus
1.8 million years ago
homo erectus emigration out of africa
east africa -> cacasus (Georgia) at Dmanisi (1.75 mya) -> Java, indonesia (1.6 mya)
easternmost europe in the republic of georgia.
attributes of the dmanisi homo erectus
similar to africa’s skull | less robust browbridge | smaller cranium
tools of the dmanisi homo erectus
still using oldowan tools: shorter, less advanced than “acheulian” tools
dmanisi’s relation to main homo erectus
dmanisi can be a primitive form
asian homo erectus areas
indonesia and china. borneo, sumatra, java, new guinea
Eugene Dubois
wants to find missing link — joins dutch east indian army
pithecanthropus erectus discovery
csolo river near town of Trinil
eventual result of dubois’ pithecanthropus erectus discovery?
it was just homo erectus.
site of modjokerto
dating to 1.8 mya
site of sangiran
“java site” at trinil
site of ngandong
young site approx 50,000-25000 years ago
“peking man”
the search in the zhoukoudian cave
Zhoukodian cave
largest collection of homo erectus material: 40 male and female adults and children
Challenges to view of Zhoukoudians
1. probably not hunters
2. probably didn’t make fire
3. cave probably not inhabited
Atapuerca site
west europe/spain, includes Sima del elefante and gran dolina
sima del elefante site
from atapuerca. northern spain, oldest european hominin site
gran dolina site
from atapuerca. later than elefante.
southern european sites
ceprano (central italy) – one individual found there
Acheulian stone tool
hand axe, all-purpose for homo erectus
bifacial tool
flaked on both sides
achulian tool kits were found in
africa, southwest asia, and western europe
first instance of definite fire usage comes from?
three chinese sites outside of the zhoukoudian site
lantian county, yunxian county, and hexian county
is zhoukoudian the oldest of the chinese sites?
no, lantian is.
what is at the lantian site?
the remains of two adult homo erectus females, TWO FIRE TREATED PEBBLES, AND FLAkes/ash
what was found at the yunxian county site?
two badly distorted crania
what was founda tthe hexian county?
the remains of several individuals

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