Human Ecology Quiz 1

Flashcards
The 5 Main Biomes (of articles)
Arctic
high altitude
arid
grassland
humid tropics
Key Material Cycles
carbon
phosphorus
nitrogen
water
oxygen
______–are the tropic levels in order
Primary Producers
Primary Consumers (herbivores)
Secondary Consumers (Carnivores)
Decomposers
_____-are the 6 biomes (according to Joehim)
tundra
temporate forest
boreal forest
tropical forest
grassland
desert
_______is systematic and driven by dynamic interaction between people and their environment
human adaptation and evolution
____—are the 3 histories of though
environmental determinism
cultural determinism
human adaptation and evolution
______focuses on resource utilization
cultural ecology
_________-are examples of ethnoecology
folk taxonomies (using local linguistics); ethnobotony, ethnozoology
____focuses on deep time and local (how long in a place)
Historical Ecology
Political Ecology__________
focus on power relationships and access to resources
5 Area that Effect Sustainability____-
human migration
urbanization
technology
tragedy of the commons
economic system
Coevolution is__________
changing together (takes time)
Coadaptation is_________—
fitting together
______is an example of human migration
Brazil with slash and burn
Indonesia with clear cutting for cattle
_______is an example of technology
the introduction of guns (overefficiency)
nylon nets vs traditional nets
____is not an ethic unless past experience teaches it
conservation
______renewable rate is______than_____consumerable rate
natures slower market
Examples of Tragedy of the Commons____
the turkish fishermen
_______is an examples of Lg. Inputs into Agriculture and Urban Ecosystems
Middle east irrigation ditches and siltation
Globalization and alienation from nature
_________-remove possibility of migration after crisis
global levels of complexity
What are aspects to societies that fell?
unequal power
wealth hierarchical governance
military approaches to conquest
Examples of Coexistence
Santa Monica Mountains (protecting reserve area and citizen suppport)
________is important for resilence and sustainable development
resilence vs. stability
overlapping niches
redundances provide backup
5 ways humans can adjust to environment
regulatory – via learned behaviors (social, cultural)
•acclimatory – temporary responses at physical level (andes mountains; short term, long term; barrel chest; red cheeks)
•developmental – while child is growing physically
•evolutionary – at the genetic level via natural selection (dark skin in sunnier climates for vitaman d absorption)
How is adaptative success measure with demograohics________
birth and death rates
rate of reproduction
How is adaptive success measured with health__–
overall heath and disease cost
nutritional health
environmental and mental health
What are the 3 ways human adaptive success is measured____
demographics
health
energy gained vs energy spent
___need to move between resources
foragers
_____need balance of sun, water and viable soil
farmers
______need graze and water for livestock
herders
environmental determinist
connects cultural tempermant to climate and topography
ethnocentrism
cultural determinism
Boaz
historical possibilism (human choice, cultural history, environmental options)
Cultural Ecology
Julian Steward
fieldwork with Shoshone foragers
resource utilization
subsistence adaptation
Evolutionary Ecology
optimal foraging Theory
human behavioal ecology
Ecological anthropolgy
Vayda, Rappaport
attention to ecosystem models
Historical ecology
local time-depth important
landscape & adaptation approach
agency approach
ethno-ecology theme is__—
emic views
cultural ecology term__
resource utilization
evolutionary ecology theme is
evolution
ecological anthropology theme
ecosystem
historical ecology theme
localized deep time
polical ecology theme
power
net primary product is__
what is usable
examples of negative stability
floodplain solutions
oil dependency
drug resistant strains
monocrops vs polycrops (pesticide and fertilizer)
Copepods provided
biolgical control of dengue fever and malaria
Humans are_________
third order consumers
Interaction between 2 human populations is considered__________—
mutualistic (both species benefit from their interaction)
limiting factor of arctic biome
extremely low temps
low biological productivity
light/dark seasonal cycles
limiting factors of high altitude biome
low oxygen pressure
high neonate mortality
low biological productiviy
cold nite time stress
limiting factors of arid
low rainfall
high rate evaporation
low biological diversity
limiting factors of humid tropic
2nd succession solar radiation
high rainfall
high diversity of species
limiting factors of grasslands
prolonged dry season
cyclic drought
herd size and composition
regulatory responses occur_______
rapidly
examples of developmental responses include
child at higher altitude larger lungs
example of open system is_–
thermoregulation of human body
biomass is__
historical possibilism says____
cultural decision not just environment help to determine cultural change and rate.
People use what they want
availabilty of resources does not predispose population to use it
Native american- didnt domesticate buffalo; eskimo did not domesticate reindeer
age area concept______
traits diffuse outward from their point of origen
cultural ecology use____approach
diachronic
diachronic is___________
studies with historical/evolutionary time dimension
emic is_________
an account from someone within the culture
within
cultural ecology is___
human adaptation to environment through cultural mechanisms

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