Sociology 101 Chapter 1

Flashcards
the scientific study of society and human behaviors
-study of human society

sociology
people who share a culture and a territory
-a large groups of people who live in the same area and participate in a common economy or culture

society
a system of beliefs and knowledge shared by members of a group or society that influences behaviors and attitudes
culture
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
sociological perspective
what matters in the sociological perspective
context & society
the group membership that people have because of their location in history and society
-the corners in life that people occupy because of their place in society

social location
__________, your experiences, becomes part of your thinking and motivation
external influences
examples of social location
job, income, gender, education, race, age, sexuality
sociological imagination was developed by who
C. W. Mills
ability to grasp the connections between history and biography
sociological imagination
Personal troubles versus public issues
C. Wright Mills
trouble that have to do with an individuals character and with those limited areas of social life he/she is directly and personally aware
personal troubles
issues that have to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the limited range of his/her life
public issues
the sociological imagination enables us to grasp the connection between _______ & _______
history & biography
by _______ Mills meant that each society is located in a broad street of events
history
by ______ Mills referred to your experiences within a specific historical setting, which gives you your orientations to life
biography
3 main events set that stage for challenging tradition and the emergence of sociology:
-industrial revolution
-american and french revolution
-imperialism
Auguste Comte
positivism
Charles Darwin
survival of the fittest
karl Marx
class conflicts
Emile Durkheim
social integration
Max Weber
religion is central to social change
Herbert Spencer
social darwinism
translated Comte’s ideas into english, became an advocate for the abolition of slavery, wrote extensive analyses of social life
Harriet Martineau
spent his lifetime studying relations between African american and whites, one of the founders of NAACP, embraced revolutions marxism
WED Du Bois
member of american sociological society, co-founded Hull-House, co-founded american civil liberties union, campaigned for 8 hour work day and laws against child labor, wrote books on poverty, democracy, and peace, co-cinner of the nobel prize for peace
Jane Adams
developed abstract models of society that influenced a generation of sociologists. his models of how the parts of society work together harmoniously did nothing to stimulate social activism
Talcott Parsons
developed theoretical abstractions, he urged sociologists to get back to social reform, he warned that the nation faced threat to freedom in his writing
C. Wright Mills
George Herbert Mead
on of the founders of symbolic interactionism
Theoretical perspectives in sociology
-Symbolic interactionism (SI)
-Functionalism
-Conflict Theory
central ideas of ___________ is symbols, things to which we attach meaning
Symbolic Interactionism
Symbolic Interactionism theorists?
Mead, Cooley
___________ analyzes how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and others
Symbolic Interactionism
Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together
Functionalism
Smaller parts are examined based on functions/dysfunctions and how it relates to the larger
unit.

Functionalism
Functionalism theorists?
comte, spencer, durheim, merton
society is composed of groups that compete with one another for scarce resources
conflict theory
conflict theory theorist?
karl marx
applying systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by these methods
science
goals of science
-explanation
-generalization
-prediction
explanation uses ______ not _____
association not cause
social sciences include
politics, economy, psychology, anthropology, sociology
the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment
-biology, geology, chemistry, physics

natural sciences
the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by mean of controlled and repeated observations
-anthropology, economics, political sciences, psychology, sociology

social sciences
understand culture
-include cultural and physical

anthropology
the study of production and distribution of the material goods and services of a society
-include macro (large scale) and micro (small scale) specialties

economics
focuses on politics and government
-theoretical and applied branches

political science
processes that occur within the individual, inside the skin-bound organism
-clinical or experimental

psychology
focus primarily on industrialized and post industrialized societies
-quantitative and qualitative branches
-overlaps other social sciences

sociology
goals of science
1. explain why something happens
2. make generalizations, go beyond the individual case and make statements that apply to a broader group or situation
3. predict, specify in the light of current knowledge what will happen in the future
a statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation
generalizations
the things that “everyone knows” are true
common sense
the use of objective systematic observations to test theories
scientific method
the application of the scientific approach to the social world
positivism
Marx’s term for the struggle between capitalist and workers
class conflict
Marx’s term for capitalists, those who own the means of production
bourgeoisie
Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do no own the means of production
proletariat
Marxim is not the same as?
communism
recurring behaviors or events
patterns of behavior
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds
-also known as social cohesion

social integration
who said that economics is the central force in social change?
Karl Marx
_____ has no place in research
bias
the view that a sociologists personal values or beliefs should not influence social research
value free
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, superior or inferior, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
values
values neutrality in research
objectivity
the repetition of a study in order to test its findings
replication
purpose of social research
– to understand human behavior
-the investigate harmful social arrangements
uses of social research
– can be used by anyone for any purpose
-should be used to improve society
a german word used by Weber that is perhaps best understood as “to have insight into someone’s situation”
Verstehen
the meaning that people give their own behavior
subjective meanings
Durkheim’s term for a group’s patterns of behavior
social facts
sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups
basic ( or pure) sociology
the use of sociology to solve problems – from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution
applied sociology
applying sociology for the public good ; especially the use o the sociological perspective (how things are related to one another) to guide politicians and policy makers
public sociology
3 types of sociology
basic, applied, public
a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
theory
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, an communicate with one another
symbolic interactionism
_____ look at how changing ideas of marriage, divorce, parenthood, and love put pressure on married couples
symbolic interactionists
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism
functional analysis
if an action is intended to help some part of a system
manifest function
if an action has unintended consequences that help a system
latent functions
unintended consequences that hurt a system
latent dysfunctions
beneficial consequences of peoples actions
functions
fearful consequences of people’s actions
dysfunctions
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
conflict theory
an examination of large-scale patterns of society; such as how Wall Street and the political establishment are interrelated
macro-level analysis
an examination of small-scale patterns of society; such as how the members of a group interact
micro-level analysis
one person’s actions influencing someone else; usually refers to what people do when they are in one another’s presence, but also includes communications at a distance
social interaction
communication without words through gestures, use of space, silence, and so on
nonverbal interaction
first phase of sociology
primary purpose of sociological research was to improve society
second phase of sociology
concern switched to developing abstract knowledge
third phase of sociology
sociologists seek ways to apply their research findings
the growing interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism
globalization
capitalism (investing to make profits within a rational system) becoming the globe’s dominant economic system
globalization of capitalism
Which of the following statements best describes the sociological perspective?

A. it examines where a society is located in a broad stream of events
B. it stresses common sense when examining societies and moves beyond generalizations
C. it emphasizes the social environments in which people live and examines the environment that influence their lives
D. it focuses on an individual’s biography as it relates to a person’s inherited mechanism instincts


C. it emphasizes the social environments in which people live and examines the environment that influence their lives
What did C. Wright Mills mean when using the term “history”?

A. each society’s location in a broad stream of events
B. an individual’s experiences within a specific setting
C. the artifacts that a society leaves behind as it changes
D. a record of past events, especially those relating to humans


A. each society’s location in a broad stream of events
Maurice is a college educated male who works in a band. This statements describes Maurice’s

A. internal mechanisms
B. global context
C. external influences
D. social location


D. social location
what is the definition of society?

A. a group of people who share a culture and heritage
B. a group of people who practice the same religion
C. a group of people who are racially homogeneous
D. a group of people who believe in the same form of government


A. a group of people who share a culture and heritage
Asha is an American teenager who believes that every teen should have a cell phone. What caused her to develop this attitude?

A. gender
B. internal mechanisms
C. external influences
D. instinct


C. external influences
______ places more emphasis on artifacts than a sociologist does

A. science
B. economics
C. anthropology
D. psychology


C. anthropology
studying how material goods and services are made and delivered to consumers is part of which social science?

A. psychology
B. economics
C. anthropology
D. political science


what differentiates a sociologist from a psychologists when looking at how people adjust to life?

A. sociologists emphasize internal mechanisms
B. sociologists stress external influences
C. sociologists rely on common sense
D. sociologists focus on emotions


B. sociologists stress external influences
what is the third goal of science?

A. making generalizations that apply to broader groups
B. explaining why things happen
C. looking for patterns or recurring events
D. making predictions of what will happen


D. making predictions of what will happen
a sociologist is collecting data to try to figure out why the girls in a certain part of the country drop out of school sooner than in other parts of the country. What does she need to do in order to make generalizations and predict behavior?

A. use local superstition to interpret data
B. look for patterns when interpreting the data
C. rely on common sense when interpreting the data
D. place emphasis on individual behavior to interpret the data


B. look for patterns when interpreting the data
What is the use of objective, systematic observations to these theories?

A. positivism
B. sociological perspective
C. scientific method
D. common sense


C. scientific method
what term is used for the idea that as societies evolve only the most fit people adapt and survive to reproduce?

A. social darwinism
B. class conflict
C. capitalism
D. positivism


A. social darwinism
Who coined the term sociology?

A. Weber
B. Darwin
C. Marx
D. Comte


D. Comte
During the Russian Revolution the common people rose up against the aristocracy. This is an example of

A. social darwinism
B. social integration
C. Marxist communism
D. class conflict


D. class conflict
How did Max Weber differ from Karl Marx in his views regarding social change?

A. weber believed social integration was caused social change rather than class conflict
B. weber believed economics was the driving force behind social change rather than religion
C. weber believed class conflict was the driving force of social change rather than religion
D. weber believed religion was the force behind social change rather than economics


D. weber believed religion was the force behind social change rather than economics
In the context of sociology, the term ______ means studying human behavior with empathy

A. Verstehen
B. bourgeoisie
C. positivism
D. biography


A. Verstehen
A college student might be quite happy in a room the size of a cell; however a prisoner would be depressed in the same room. What is this an example of?

A. social integration
B. class conflict
C. subjective meaning
D. verstehen


C. subjective meaning
what did Durkheim call a group’s recurring patterns of behavior?

A. social facts
B. social integration
C. subjective meaning
D. class conflict


A. social facts
What is a benefit of Verstehen?

A. it is easy to replicate
B. it helps eliminate bias
C. it contributes to gaining insight into behavior
D. it helps to create generalizations


C. it contributes to gaining insight into behavior
Durkheim emphasized ______ while Weber stressed ______

A. social facts; subjective meaning
B. social integration; social facts
C. subjective meaning; social facts
D. social facts; social integration


A. social facts; subjective meaning
when did sociology take root in North America?

A. 1890s
B. 1920s
C. 1930s
D. 1900s


A. 1890s
Rodney works as a sociologists for large corporation where he developed and implements solution designed to improve relations between employees. What type of sociology is he practicing?

A. applied
B. public
C. pure
D. basic


A. applied
what is the end goal of basic sociology?

A. criticize society
B. implement solution
C. generate reform
D. gain knowledge


D. gain knowledge
Why were many early female sociologists ignored by the academic sociologists?

A. the female sociologists were too emotional about the objects of their research
B. the female sociologists were not as well educated as men
C. the female sociologists emphasized objective social research
D. the female sociologists focused on social reform


D. the female sociologists focused on social reform
Jane Addams practiced ______ sociology

A. applied
B. basic
C. theoretical
D. marxist


A. applied
______ analyze how social life depends on the way we define ourselves and others

A. applied sociologists
B. social reformers
C. symbolic interactionists
D. functional analysts


C. symbolic interactionists
which of the following statements is a manifest function of China’s one-child policy?

A. most of the population was born before 1979, resulting in an aging population
B. the overall birthrate declined, thus controlling overpopulation
C. parents devoted more resources to the one child they were allowed
D. fewer female babies were born due to sex selection


B. the overall birthrate declined, thus controlling overpopulation
an unintended result that harms a system is a

A. latent dysfunction
B. manifest dysfunction
C. latent function
D. manifest function


A. latent dysfunction
what is the main concept of functional analysis?

A. society is a whole unit with parts that work together
B. society no longer functions like a living organism
C. society is comprised of groups competing for scarce resources
D. society is dependent on symbols and how we define them


A. society is a whole unit with parts that work together
how can conflict theory contribute to explaining the high divorce rate in the United States?

A. modern women do not view marriage as a lifelong commitment
B. when women go to work, family ties are weekend
C. women no longer accept men’s “natural” superiority
D. divorced women are no longer stigmatized by society


C. women no longer accept men’s “natural” superiority
During the ______ phase of sociology, the focus was on abstract knowledge

A. fourth
B. third
C. first
D. second


D. second
what is one of the two major trends in sociology?

A. research versus reform
B. diversity of orientation
C. globalization of capitalism
D. application of research


A. research versus reform
identify an effect of globalization

A. people across the world are more interconnected
B. reform is becoming more important than research
C. sociology is becoming less important on a local level
D. our welfare is no longer tied to other nations


A. people across the world are more interconnected
how might sociology be influenced by globalization?

A. sociologists will apply less macro level analysis
B. sociologists will try harder to define universal principles
C. sociologists will use more micro level analysis
D. sociologists will focus local reform


B. sociologists will try harder to define universal principles
what is the reason for dividing sociology into phases?

A. help sociologists reach agreement
B. foster globalization of sociology
C. develop diverse orientations
D. identify major social trends


D. identify major social trends
what did C. Wright Mills means when he used the word “biography” as applied to sociology?

A. a written account of someone’s life
B. an individual’s experiences within a specific historical setting
C. artifacts that a person leaves behind
D. each society’s location in a broad stream of events


B. an individual’s experiences within a specific historical setting
how does a sociologist differ from an anthropologist?

A. sociologists place more emphasis on heritage and kinship
B. sociologists primarily focus on the artifacts of past stories
C. sociologist focus primarily on industrialized and post-industrialized societies
D. sociologist place more emphasis on internal influences


C. sociologist focus primarily on industrialized and post-industrialized societies
Kisha is studying how growing up as an African-Americal girl in the suburbs influences a person’s behavior.She is looking at ______ to help understand the behavior of this group of people.

A. class conflict
B. social darwinism
C. social location
D. internal mechanisms


C. social location
what is the second goal of science?

A. using common sense
B. making generalizations
C. looking for patterns
D. making predictions


B. making generalizations
______ is the degree to which people are tied to their social group

A. social integration
B. Marxism
C. social attachment
D. positivism


A. social integration
why did those who believed in social darwinism think it was wrong to help the poor?

A. it helped the less capable survive
B. it went against the protestant work ethic
C. it encouraged class conflict
D. it was a step toward communism


A. it helped the less capable survive
Karl Marx believed _____ was behind social change

A. darwinism
B. economics
C. religion
D. communism


B. economics
______ has no place in research

A. objectivity
B. bias
C. generalization
D. prediction


B. bias
which of the following statements is an example of Verstehen?

A. Joan has given birth, so she understand the fears of expectant mothers
B. Joan has all there of her children at home
C. Joan thinks that hospitals are unhealthy and will not give birth in one
D. Joan’s children were all born on weekdays


A. Joan has given birth, so she understand the fears of expectant mothers
Max Weber believed ______ was a major factor in the rise of capitalism and that we should use ______ to understand human behavior

A. religion; Verstehen
B. Darwinism; science
C. Marxism; religion
D. economics; values


A. religion; Verstehen
More Americans get married in June that in any other month. This is an example of

A. protestant ethics
B. bourgeoise tradition
C. subjecting meaning
D. social fact


D. social fact
which of the following sociologists is best remembered for battling against racism?

A. Karl Marx
B. W.E.B. Du Bois
C. Max Weber
D. Emile Durkheim


B. W.E.B. Du Bois
What is the goal of applied sociology?

A. contracting theories
B. criticizing policies
C. implementing solutions
D. promoting research


C. implementing solutions
The difference between a manifest function and a latent function is a manifest function has an _____ beneficial consequences and a latent function has an ______ consequence

A. intended; unintended beneficial
B. intended; unintended destructive
C. unintended; intended beneficial
D. unintended; intended harmful


A. intended; unintended beneficial
Improving society was the most important facet of sociological research in the ______ phase of sociology

A. third
B. second
C. first
D. fourth


C. first

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