Study for Final

Literally, the word religion means
connect again.
A mystical orientation in religion is characterized by
seeking union with something greater than oneself.
A sacramental orientation in religion is characterized by
a belief that certain rituals and ceremonies help one achieve salvation.
Anthropology typically studies religions as
cultural creations with multiple aspects.
A universal religious symbol that is circular, or that blends a circle and a square, is called a
mandala.
The prophetic orientation in religion is particularly strong in
Protestant Christianity.
Pantheism is the belief
that all reality is divine.
One religion that particularly values and makes use of silence is
Zen Buddhism
One name of an early female deity was
Astarte
In religious studies, the word myth means
a story that is psychologically meaningful and may be either historically true or not.
Literally, philosophy in Greek means
love of wisdom
A common element often found in religions is
feelings of wonder.
A major French artist created a large painting with the title of Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? The artist’s name was
Paul Gauguin
Among many reasons, religions exist to help people
deal with the certainty of death.
The Scottish anthropologist who was the author of the multivolume study of mythology called The Golden Bough was
James Frazer
The German theologian who held that religions originate in human response to the mysterious side of reality was
Rudolf Otto
The American thinker who argued that religion brought a new vitality to people’s lives was
William James.
Literally, psychology mean
study of the soul.
What psychologist saw religion as a way for people to find their fulfillment as unique individuals, a process he called “individuation”?
Carl Jung
Female imagery in religions may be seen in
spirals and eggs.
The approach that especially makes use of reason to find answers to religious questions is
philosophy.
The conception of time that is found in religions that emphasize a creation and a cosmic purpose is usually
linear.
The prophetic orientation in religion emphasizes
beliefs and moral codes.
That area of investigation that looks for and interprets religious evidence in ancient sites, buildings, and objects is
archeology.
Literally, “theology” means
study of the divine.
The sociologist who emphasized that individual religions arise from and express the values of their societies was
Durkheim
The anthropologist who lived in the Sudan among the Nuer and Azande peoples was
Evans-Pritchard.
The French thinker who recognized extraordinary structural similarities in stories told by tribal peoples of the Americas was
Levi-Strauss.
The French thinker who sought to go behind and beyond ordinary interpretations, to in essence “deconstruct” texts and other phenomena in search of fresh ways of seeing was
Derrida.
The French thinker who explored types of power in social and religious institutions and systems of thought that oppressed minority and other marginalized groups was
Foucault.
The analytical approach that carefully investigates individual elements in cultural phenomena, rejecting the quest for universal structures that might under gird language or religion is
post-structuralism.
The analytical approach to language, religions, and mythology that searches for universal underlying frameworks is
structuralism.
The analytical approach that studies written texts of religion and even non-written material as reflections of the cultural values and assumptions that produced them is
literary theory.
The early anthropologist who saw religion as rooted in a belief in spirits and worship of them was
E. B. Tylor.
Sigmund Freud, when analyzing the origin of religion, emphasized
the human need for psychological security.
The disciple of Freud who ultimately rebelled against him was
Carl Jung.
Wilhelm Schmidt, an Austrian philologist, argued that human beings originally believed in
one God.
Belief in many gods is called
polytheism.
Belief in one God is called
monotheism.
True or False:
Polytheism means belief in many gods.

True
True or False:
Sigmund Freud is the American psychologist who viewed religion as a positive way of fulfilling needs and praised its positive influence on the lives of individuals.

False
True or False:
Animism means belief in one God.

False
True or False:
William James is the founder of psychoanalysis who theorized that belief in a God or gods arose from an adult’s projection of powerful and long-lasting experiences with his or her parents.

False
True or False:
James Frazer is the Scottish anthropologist and author of “The Golden Bough” who saw the origins of religion in early attempts by human beings to influence nature and who identified religion as an intermediate stage between magic and science.

True
True or False:
Rudolf Otto is the German theologian who argued in “The Idea of the Holy” that religions emerge when people experience that aspect of reality which is essentially mysterious.

True
True or False:

Theodicy refers to not asserting or denying the existence of any deity; unconcerned with the supernatural.
False

True or False:
Pantheism means belief that everything in the universe is divine.

True
True or False: “Atheism” means the position that holds that there is no God or gods.
True
True or False:
Emile Durkheim was the French sociologist who argued that religious behavior is relative to the society in which it is found, and that a society will often use a religion to reinforce its own values.

True
True or False:
The analytical approach that carefully investigates individual elements in cultural phenomena, rejecting the quest for universal structures that might under gird language or religion is called “post-structuralism.”

True
A bias against the study of indigenous religions up until the twentieth century was
the assumption that they are not complex.
The term medicine man refers to
the shaman.
Navaho sand paintings are
temporary creations in a ritual.
A place where one can sometimes escape punishment is
a sanctuary.
A common symbol signifying the center of the universe in many indigenous religions is
the sacred tree of life.
A human being who contacts and attempts to manipulate the power of spirits for the tribe or group.
shaman
A worldview common among indigenous religions that sees all elements of nature as being filled with spirit or spirits.
animism
In Hawaii, the goddess of fire, whose place of veneration is the volcano.
Pele
The act of pouring a liquid as an offering to a god.
libation
Organic, integrated; indicating a complete system, greater than the sum of its parts; here, refers to a culture whose various elements may all have religious meaning.
holistic
An indigenous tradition in New Zealand.
Maori
In the worldview of animism,
there are no clear boundaries between the natural and the supernatural.
A long-stemmed sacred pipe used primarily by many native peoples of North America; it is smoked as a token of peace.
calumet
A foretelling of the future or a discovery of the unknown by magical means.
divination
Hawaiian term meaning “taboo” or “forbidden.”
kapu
A strong social prohibition.
taboo
A native tradition in Africa.
Yoruba
A visionary of the Oglala Sioux who, in his dictated autobiography, claims that there is no strong distinction between the human and animal worlds but rather a sense of kinship.
Black Elk
The so-called Eskimo culture of Canada.
Inuit
Literally “eye-movement,” the traditional Hawaiian observance of the four-month winter period, which refers to the appearance and movement of stars.
Makahiki
The name given by the Koyukon people of the Arctic to the holy ancient past in which the gods lived and worked.
Distant time
A Caucasoid group in northern Japan, especially Hokkaido, known for its animistic beliefs that spirits or spiritual powers are causative in natural events.
Ainu
To believe that nature is full of spirits implies that
human beings must treat all things with care.
In Hawaiian culture, a specialist, such as priest, midwife, or navigator.
kahuna
Animal (or image of animals) that is considered to be related by blood to a family or clan and is its guardian or symbol.
totem
Traditional Dogon religion.
Omolobulo
The year Popay (Popé), a Pueblo native religious leader, led a revolt against religious oppression.
1680
Sacred time is
cyclical, returning to its origins for renewal.
Constructed sacred space
is often in a symbolic shape such as a circle or square.
Indigenous religions
make little distinction between a god and an ancestor.
Key events in the life cycle are
marked with special rituals.
The Native American vision quest is an example of
a rite of passage.
Taboos that have been broken are often mended through
sacrifices
The Maori is the so-called Eskimo culture of Canada.
False
Holistic means organic, integrated; indicating a complete system, greater than the sum of its parts; in religious studies, refers to a culture whose various elements may all have religious meaning.
True
A totem is an animal (or image of animals) that is considered to be related by blood to a family or a clan and is its guardian or symbol.
True
The Inuit is a native tradition in New Zealand.
False
A totem is a long-stemmed sacred pipe used primarily by many native peoples of North America; it is smoked as a token of peace.
False
Libation is the act of pouring a liquid as an offering to a god.
True
Kapu is the traditional Hawaiian observance of the four-month winter period.
False
Kupuna is a foretelling of the future or a discovery of the unknown by magical means.
False
Black Elk was a visionary of the Oglala Sioux who, in his dictated autobiography, claims that there is no strong distinction between the human and animal worlds but rather a sense of kinship.
True
Yoruba is a native or oral tradition in Africa.
True
Hogon is the traditional Dogon religion.
False
The Ainu is a Caucasoid group in northern Japan, especially Hokkaido, known for its animistic beliefs that spirits or spiritual powers are causative in natural events.
True
After a religious revolt, Spain reestablished control over the Pueblo peoples in 1680.
False
Pueblo peoples consider kachinas to be spirits of animals, people, plants or other beings that can act as guardian spirits.
True
Woven rugs with geometric patterns are a distinctive part of Navaho healing rituals.
False
Kapu is the Hawaiian term meaning “taboo” or “forbidden.”
True
Libation is a strong social prohibition.
False
The word that means “liberation” is
moksha
The oldest and most important of the Vedas is
Rig Veda.
The Upanishads are
about 100 written works that discuss the nature of spiritual reality.
When was the Bhagavad Gita written?
200 b.c.e.-200 c.e.
The Bhagavad Gita is part of a long Indian epic poem called
Mahabharata
The prince who is counseled by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita is
Arjuna.
The term maya may be translated as
illusion
Bhakti means
devotion to a god.
The god Rama is frequently paired with
Sita
The Vedic god of storm and war was
Indra
What god—ordinarily shown with the face of a monkey—helped return Sita after her abduction to Sri Lanka?
Hanuman
The word Vedas is related to the English word
vision
The ideal of causing no harm to anything that can suffer is
ahimsa
The modern Indian who used nonviolent means to help lead India to independence in 1947 was
Mohandas Gandhi.
The religious practice of ordinary Hindus is primarily
devotion to deities.
The law of moral cause-and-effect is called the law of
karma
A Hindu social class, sanctioned by religion, is called a
caste
Raja yoga is the yoga of
meditation
A brahmin is a
priest
This god is associated with destruction and rebirth.
Shiva
A major city of the pre-Vedic culture of the Indus River Valley was
Harappa
Om is a well-known example of a
mantra
Vedic worship was primarily
offerings to nature gods at fire altars.
What deity is often shown with dark blue skin?
Krishna
A guru is a
religious teacher.
An important symbol of Shiva is the
lingam
In Hinduism, dharma refers to
one’s social duty.
The absolute or divine reality is known as
Brahman
A sannyasin is a
wandering holy man.
The city of India considered most sacred by the Hindus is
Benares (Varanasi).
In Hinduism, the dead body is disposed of by
cremation
The river that lies northwest of India is
Indus
Hinduism is the majority religion of
Nepal
A characteristic symbolic object associated with Krishna, indicative of the attractive power of the divine, is a
flute
The goal of ultimate liberation from egotism and from rebirth is called
moksha
Puja is
devotional ritual.
Krishna is considered an incarnation of
Vishnu
Krishna is often portrayed holding a
flute
The elephant-headed god who is a symbol of abundance is
Ganesha
The goddess of good luck is
Lakshmi
Transcendentalism is the name for
an American movement in literature that was influenced by Hinduism.
Facts lending support to the Aryan Invasion Theory include
ancient Sanskrit’s relation to Greek and Latin.
Critics of the Aryan Invasion or Migration theory often maintain that these are
indications continued of western cultural imperialism.
Archeological discoveries showing Harappa civilization was not destroyed by outsiders led to
the development of the Aryan Migration Theory.
A mantra is a
short chant.
Yoga path striving to do all useful work unselfishly without a desire for reward.
karma
Yoga path focused on meditation
raja
Yoga path of doing various stretching postures and balancing.
hatha
An element contributing to the rise of Hindu fundamentalism is
a perceived danger coming from Christians, Muslims, and Sikhs.
What animal is treated with special devotion and care by Hindus?
cow
Siddhartha Gautama is the name of
he person who became known as the Buddha.
he basic outlook on life, formulated by Buddhism, is contained in
the Four Noble Truths
One of the essential Buddhist teachings is
everything is changing.
In regard to the common belief in a permanent soul, the Buddha seems to have taught that
there is none.
Buddhism began in
India.
Nirvana seems to come from a word that means
blow out.
A major goal of Buddhism is
inner peace
Buddhism developed into several branches. The branch that spread into Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia is
Theravada.
Literally, Mahayana means
big vehicle.
A person of great compassion, willing to be reborn constantly to help others, is called
bodhisattva.
The essential collection of sacred books of Buddhism is called
Tripitaka (Tipitaka).
Tradition holds that which relative of the Buddha died soon after the birth of the Buddha?
mother
Zen comes from a word that means
meditation
The ideal of the Theravada branch is the
arhat (arahat).
Tibetan Buddhism includes elements of
shamanism
The general name for that category of books that is said to give the words of the Buddha is
sutra
The unconditioned state of reality that is the highest goal of Buddhism is called
nirvana.
The dissatisfaction and sorrow that life brings is called
dukkha
Tibetan Buddhism
makes great use of ritual.
Buddhism came to Tibet from
India
In Tibetan Buddhism, a vajra is frequently used together with
a bell
The Chan/Zen virtues are especially
intuition and naturalness.
Regarding his social class, the Buddha was
an aristocrat.
The school of Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, which sees the Buddha as a divine savior, whose name the believer must constantly repeat with devotion, is
Pure Land.
Concerning words, Zen stresses that words are
not adequate.
What is most important in Zen is
enlightened awareness.
A koan is
a question.
The type of beauty that Zen particularly values emphasizes is
simplicity.
The Buddha of the Western Paradise is
Amitabha.
The name for the Buddhist community of monks and nuns is
sangha.
To lessen suffering, the Buddha recommended
lessening desire.
Buddhism focuses especially on
maintaining inner peace.
The Buddha opposed
the caste system.
The Buddha lived about this time.
fifth century b.c.e.
The Indian ruler who spread Buddhist teaching widely was
Ashoka
Vinaya refers to
a collection of rules for monks and nuns.
Vimalakirti was
a rich but compassionate and wise layman.
The “Sutras on the Perfection of Wisdom” have what Sanskrit name?
Prajnaparamita
In China, Buddhism was sometimes criticized because
monks and nuns had no children.
In China, the various Mahayana sects tended to blend. But they have remained separate in
Japan.
The Japanese monk who studied in China and established Shingon Buddhism in Japan was
Kukai (Kobo Daishi).
Zen traces itself back to a legendary founder named
Bodhidharma.
Besides Tibetan Buddhism, another form of Vajrayana Buddhism is
Shingon Buddhism.
Elements of Buddhism, as interpreted in Japanese woodblock prints, influenced which artist?
Vincent Van Gogh
The Buddha was particularly troubled by the problem of
suffering and death.
Enlightened awareness in Zen is called
satori.
An essential practice in Zen is
manual labor
A key practice of Nicheren Buddhism is
a chant to the Lotus Sutra.
Tendai Buddhism is known for
systematizing varied Buddhist teachings into a progressive hierarchy.
An important practice in Shingon Buddhism is
a fire ritual with historic links to the Vedic fire ceremony.
Jainism places great emphasis on
ahimsa.
The name Mahavira literally means
hero or great man.
Jainism seems to be most strongly concerned about
breaking the power of bondage to the physical world.
Jains believe that perfected souls
disappear from the world and live at the top of the universe
Jainism, as taught by Mahavira, emerged in India about the time of what other great teacher?
Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha
Jain monasticism has split into how many branches?
4
The name of the Digambara branch literally means
sky-clothed.
Jainism was a strong influence on
Gandhi.
Regarding the ability of human beings to find the truth, Jainism
teaches that truth is relative to each person’s viewpoint.
Sallekhana means
holy death
Most Jains practice the devotional activity called
puja
The Jain worldview holds that a Creator
does not exist.
Like Buddhists, Jains value
nonattachement and nonharm.
The religion of Sikhism first developed in
the Punjab region of India and Pakistan.
The center of the Sikh religion is at
Amritsar.
The turning point in Nanak’s life was a
prophetic call near a river.
A Sikh temple is called a
gurdwara.
Which religions accept the eating of animals?
Sikhism and Islam
Nanak, after leaving home to teach, wore
clothing that blended Muslim and Hindu styles.
The Khalsa was created to be
a protective social organization.
One of the requirements of the Khalsa was
no alcohol
The name Adi Granth means
original collection.
Hylozoism, the metaphysical philosophy of Jainism,
sees life in everything, even what is inanimate.
The Adi Granth is the
most important Sikh scripture.
Some Sikhs want a
Sikh nation, separate from India.
How many Sikh gurus were there before the human line of gurus ended?
10
Nanak’s name for God was
True Name.
Nanak, like the Hindus, believed in
reincarnation and karma.
The founder of Sikhism was
Nanak.
The worldview of Sikhism is similar to the Hindu philosophical school called
Sankhya.
A sangat is
a religious group.
What item worn by the Sikh Khalsa symbolizes strength?
steel bracelet.
Jains allow and even recommend
gentle suicide after a long life of virtue
Uncut hair by the Khalsa and the last name Singh represent the symbolic characteristics of what animal?
lion
What item worn by the Sikh Khalsa represents alertness and readiness to fight?
special underwear.
How many parts is the Adi Granth divided into?
3
According to Sikh teaching, the primary guru is
A.become one with God.
B.have one’s spirit overcome physicality.
C.practice nonviolence.

?
According to Sikh teaching, the primary guru is
God.
Guru Granth is
an honorary title for the sacred book of Sikhism
The Jains consider Mahavira to be
the twenty-fourth “crossing-maker.”
Jain monks differ from Buddhist monks in
allowing nakedness.
In the story of their lives, Mahavira and the Buddha show similarities, such as
their both practicing extreme asceticism.
Jainism sees reality as made up of
life (jiva) and nonlife (ajiva)
Tirthankara is the Jain name that is translated
crossing-maker.
Japji means “Conqueror”; the Jain term for a perfected person who will not be reborn.
false
Khalsa is the community of initiated Sikhs.
true
A Digambara is a Sikh temple.
false
Puja means “disciple”; a follower of the Sikh religion.
false
The Adi Granth is the “original collection”; the primary scripture of the Sikhs.
true
Adi Granth means “Holy Death”; death by self-starvation, valued in Jainism as a noble end of a long life of virtue and detachment.
false
The notion of wu wei is
no unnecessary action.
The Daodejing is written in approximately how many Chinese characters?
5,000
The Daodejing is known for its
deliberate obscurity.
Dao is the origin of
the rhythms of nature.
“Divination” refers to
telling the future.
An image used by the Daodejing to express the difficulty of seeing in the Daoistic way is
darkness.
A story in the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) makes fun of the silliness of human beings. It compares them to
monkeys.
After his wife died, Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)
sang.
Laozi (Lao Tzu) is said to have been a
librarian.
A hierarchical, hereditary form of Daoism is called
Heavenly Master Daoism.
“Black Heads” is the name for
Daoist priests.
Literally, Daodejing means
way-power-classic
Concerning the origins of Daoism, scholars today point to
a multiplicity of possible sources that coalesced into a movement.
The two dots of contrasting color inside the light and dark commas of the yin/yang symbol represent
the seed of its opposite.
Daoism likely established monasteries and temples
through the influence of Buddhism.
Daoism developed a pantheon of hundreds of deities, the most important being
the Three Purities.
The Three Purities consist of
the Dao, the god who transmits Daoist insight, and Laozi.
Daoism might have similarities with Hinduism because
both seem to cover a wide variety of beliefs and practices
Confucianism has been especially concerned about relationships
between human beings.
Confucius lived during what years?
551-479 b.c.e.
Confucius worked almost all his life as
a teacher.
The Analects are
the sayings of Confucius.
From a Daoist perspective, the proper job a person should have would be determined by
what the individual is most capable of doing
The Doctrine of the Mean
is a short book on moderation and harmony.
The Mencius
presents the teachings of a Confucian thinker.
Confucius’s ideal society would live according to the ideals of the
Five Relationships.
Confucius hoped to
restore the social harmony of the past.
The Yijing (Yi Jing, I Ching)
is a book, valued by Confucius, that is used for divination.
In their view of human nature, the Confucianists
see human beings as needing their characters shaped by education.
The personal ideal or hero of Confucianism is the
noble person.
The social period in which Confucius lived was
disorderly.
Mencius (Mengzi, Meng Tzu) was a
Confucian with a positive view of human nature.
In regard to Confucianism, the Communists after the Communist Revolution
rejected it as not being egalitarian.
The man who dreamed he was a butterfly was
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu).
The most fundamental relationship for Confucius seems to have been that between
father and son.
The virtue of filial piety means
devotion to one’s family.
The ideal of benevolence or “humanheartedness” in Chinese is a written character made up of which pictographs?
a person and the number two
The most significant Confucian art form has been
calligraphy.
The authoritative pre-Confucian books are the
Five Classics.
During the Han dynasty (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.),
Confucianism became the official philosophy of China, guiding its state policy.
Which great scholar developed a complete philosophy of reality, now called Neo-Confucianism?
Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi)
China has had how many female rulers (emperors)?
1
Confucianism was criticized by Chinese who had studied in the West and were influenced by the teachings of
John Dewey and Bertrand Russell.
Confucianism remains a strong value system in
Korea
Applying the notion of yin and yang, we could say that Daoism shows a special love for
allowing things to develop naturally.
The Qing (Ching) dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, collapsed in China in
1911
Complex Confucian etiquette shows respect to others, makes social interactions predictable, and
reflects the social position of its participants.
The most important image to be found in the Daodejing, the image that best expresses its ideals, is
water
At the end of his life, Laozi (Lao Tzu) is said to have
left China riding on an ox.
Daoists aim at enjoying a long life but also accept death because
death is a part of the natural order of things.
Shinto often makes use of
purification rituals.
The term Shinto comes from two Chinese words that mean
the way of the gods.
The country that before modern times had the most influence on Japan was
China.
The primary focus of Shinto worship is directed toward
the gods of nature.
Among Shinto values and practices, which task is quite important?
purification
Shinto puts great emphasis on
careful ritual.
Kamikaze is a term used for referring to
suicide pilots.
State Shinto refers to
a former system of national shrines.
The Nihongi is
a collection of stories of the gods and early history.
The ideal of the warrior, promoted by Shinto during World War II, is called
bushido.
The emperor renounced his title to divinity when
World War II ended.
The sun goddess of Shinto is
Amaterasu.
Tenrikyo, which grew out of Shinto, has its headquarters near
Nara.
The founder of Tenrikyo was
Nakayama Miki.
Omoto is a new religion that emphasizes the value of
art.
Omoto, in order to encourage international understanding, gives a special place to the study and use of
Esperanto.
Shinto and Buddhism
began to blend soon after the introduction of Buddhism.
The Japanese people
seem to be a blend of several peoples.
It has been a traditional teaching that the imperial family is descended from what kami?
Amaterasu
It is possible that the creation myth that tells of numerous kami
unites the beliefs of several clans or tribes.
Shinto and Confucianism particularly had what feature in common?
veneration of ancestors
The emperor of Japan came to be considered a father figure for the whole country. This
seems to show the influence of Confucianism.
The primeval female kami who was burned by the fire god is
Izanami.
Shinto
has helped the Japanese maintain a sense of their unique identity.
Izanami and Izanagi created Japan when they stirred the ocean with
a jeweled spear.
Izanagi searched for Izanami
in the underworld.
The basis for the Japanese writing system came from
China
The goddess Amaterasu was lured from a cave, where she was hiding, by
dancing nearby.
The Church of World Messianity (Sekaikyu Seikyo) is an offshoot o
Omoto
The Shinto deity of rice and good harvest is
Inari
The islands of Japan, according to the creation story, are a sort of this-worldly heaven because
humans share the islands with divine beings who live there.
Part of the accommodation between Shinto and Buddhism included
a division of focus with Buddhism associated with philosophy, death and afterlife while Shinto was called on for agriculture and fertility.
During the Meiji Restoration, Shinto became tied to growing nationalism through
emphasis on the divine origins of the emperor.
The color most often associated with Shinto is
white
Among the numerous kami are the powers of nature; spirits associated with particular places in nature such as trees, waterfalls, and mountains; the ancestors; and
animal spirits.
A special New Year’s ritual in Shinto is
rice pounding.
The torii is
often used as a gateway to a sacred location.
The name for a god in Shinto is
kami
The Shinto shrine that is dedicated to Amaterasu and is the shrine of the imperial family is located at
Ise
A major Shinto shrine in Tokyo is named after what emperor?
Meiji
An important element of ritual at a Shinto shrine is
hand clapping.
Japji means “Conqueror”; the Jain term for a perfected person who will not be reborn.
false
Khalsa is the community of initiated Sikhs.
true
A Digambara is a Sikh temple.
false
Puja means “disciple”; a follower of the Sikh religion.
false
The Adi Granth is the “original collection”; the primary scripture of the Sikhs.
True
Adi Granth means “Holy Death”; death by self-starvation, valued in Jainism as a noble end of a long life of virtue and detachment.
False
Tirthankara means “crossing maker”; in Jainism, one of the twenty-four ideal human beings of the past, Mahavira being the most recent.
true
Ahimsa is a poem by Guru Nanak that begins the Adi Granth; the poem is recited daily by pious Sikhs.
False
Punjab, in Jainism, means ritual in honor of tirthankara.
False
Judaism traces itself back to what legendary patriarch who is written about in the book of Genesis?
Abraham
The Talmud is
a long work of commentary based on biblical principles.
The Jewish Day of Atonement, the most sacred day of the Jewish year, is
Yom Kippur.
Contemporary Judaism has split into four parts. The most liberal is called
Reconstructionist Judaism.
The general Jewish attitude toward physical matter and bodily pleasure has generally been that
both matter and the body are innately good.
When the Jewish boy turns thirteen, he is considered an adult in the religious community. This ceremony takes its name from his new status.
Bar Mitzvah
Which division of modern Judaism stresses strict beliefs and careful keeping of dietary laws?
Orthodox
Which Jewish festival recalls the event related in the Book of Exodus about liberation of the Hebrews from oppression in Egypt?
Passover (Pesach)
Which book is part of the Torah or Pentateuch?
Leviticus
The Reform movement that began to spread in the nineteenth century attempted to
modernize Judaism.
The three categories of the Hebrew Bible are
Torah, Prophets, and Writings.
The biblical book that describes the origins of the human race is
Genesis
The Sadducees were
an aristocratic, priestly party centered in Jerusalem.
The Jewish Sabbath is kept from
sunset Friday to sunset Saturday.
The biblical book of song lyrics sung in worship at the Second Temple in Jerusalem is
Psalms
Jewish dietary laws forbid eating
pork.
The Jewish New Year occurs at what time of year?
autumn
The Passover occurs at what time of year?
spring
On what feast are Jewish children given presents for eight days?
Hanukkah
The Bible says that God spoke to Moses
on Mount Sinai.
The day of Rejoicing in the Torah comes at the end of what festival?
Sukkot
The Southern Kingdom was destroyed in 586 b.c.e. by
Babylonia.
Zionism is
a movement that urges Jews to live in Israel.
Sephardic Jews have lived primarily in
the Mediterranean region.
The language of Sephardic Jews has been
Ladino
The Yiddish language, though written in Hebrew characters, is a type of
German
The first two kings of the Israelite Kingdom were
Saul and David.
A dietary law kept by traditionalist Jews is that what items may not be eaten at the same meal?
meat and dairy products
Traditionalists sometimes interpret the command not to work on the Sabbath as including no
use of the telephone.
Another name for the Torah is
Pentateuch
The name “Eve” means
life
Adam is said to have lived to be how old?
930
“Canaan” refers to
an early name for the region of Israel.
The Hebrew Bible sees history as
signs of divine activity.
“Covenant” means
contract
The Hebrew ancestor who, according to the Bible, first settled in Egypt was
Joseph
The moral conscience of the Hebrew people was the
prophets
According to the Book of Exodus, what disaster was the last to strike the Egyptians?
death of firstborn male children
The Jewish view of God is best expressed as
God makes moral demands.
The Torah is
the first five books of the Bible (Pentateuch)
The destruction of the Second Temple changed the nature of the Hebrew religion in that afterward
the Jewish religion began to focus on the written word.
The Talmud is the dispersion of Jews beyond Israel, particularly to Persia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean region.
false
Canaan is a joyous festival in early spring that recalls the Jews’ being saved from destruction, as told in the book of Esther.
false
Diaspora means “Teaching,” “instruction”; the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures; also the additional instructions of God, believed by many to have been transmitted orally from Moses through a succession of teachers and rabbis.
False
Seder means “Order”; a special ritual meal at Passover, recalling the Hebrews’ exodus from Egypt.
True
Biblical Judaism describes Judaism before the destruction of the Second Temple (70 C.E.).
true
The Western Wall is the foundation stones of the western wall of the last temple of Jerusalem, today a place of prayer.
True
Bar mitzvah means “Son of the commandment”; the coming-of-age ceremony that marks the time when a young man is considered a legal adult within the Jewish community.
True
Kosher means “ritually correct”; said particularly about food consumption and food preparation.
true
Passover is a joyful spring festival that recalls the Hebrews’ exodus from Egypt and freedom from oppression.
true
The Gospel that is oriented toward a Jewish audience and that portrays Jesus as the “new Moses” is
Matthew
In 1054, what happened between the Eastern (Greek-speaking) Church and the Western (Latin-speaking) Church?
They split apart.
The Christian bishop of North Africa who wrote his Confessions and influenced much later Christianity was
Augustine
Perhaps the most important ritual of Christianity is a sign of entry into the church, or
baptism
The color that symbolizes sorrow for sin and repentance and is used during Lent is
purple
A letter to an early Christian community is called
an epistle.
Regarding traditional Jewish practices, Jesus seems to have thought that
human happiness was an important goal.
The major Christian rituals, such as baptism and the Lord’s Supper, are often called
sacraments.
Christianity added its books to those of the Hebrew Bible; the distinctively Christian books are called
he New Testament.
What movement, growing after 500 c.e. in Europe, helped spread Christianity widely throughout Europe?
monasticism
The Gothic cathedrals were built primarily during the
Middle Ages.
“I am the Light of the world” is a statement found in what non-Synoptic Gospel?
John
Gothic architecture, although it arose in France, may be traced back to
Persia
The Protestant Reformation was started by
Martin Luther.
The founder of the Church of England was
Henry VIII.
The branch of Christianity that is significant in Russia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania is called
Eastern Orthodox.
The central sacrament (ritual act) of the Roman Catholic Church is called
the Mass
The bishop who is the most important bishop in the Eastern Orthodox Church is the patriarch of
Constantinople
In 313 the emperor Constantine published an Edict of Toleration, which allowed
Christians to worship publicly
Christianity first spread in
the Mediterranean region
Lent is
a period of preparation for Easter.
The history of the early Christian Church is found in what biblical book?
Acts
Many fine portraits of women are found in what Gospel, that emphasizes compassion and also contains the story of the Good Samaritan?
Luke
What is the oldest branch of the Protestant Reformation? Lutheranism
Lutheranism
The branch of Protestantism that especially has stressed the religious value of work and discipline is
Calvinism
The dramatic style of church architecture that Catholics frequently used in order to oppose the Protestant Reformation is called
Baroque
The person whose Rule for Monks helped organize and spread Western monasticism was
Benedict
The term a.d. means
Anno Domini (in the year of the Lord).
The view that the end of the world is near is called
apocalypticism
The statue of the Pietà in St. Peter’s Basilica is by
Michelangelo
Christianity grew out of
Judaism
Jesus died at the time of what religious festival?
Passover
Literally, “gospel” means
good news.
Jesus said that all important religious laws could be summed up in the
Two Great Commandments.
Jesus opposed divorce because
divorce left a woman unable to support herself
The primary language that Jesus spoke was
Aramaic
The early Christian group that was primarily Jewish in background had its headquarters in
Jerusalem
One of the major areas of debate among early Christians was aboutOne of the major areas of debate among early Christians was about
whether or not they had to keep Jewish laws.
The oldest of the Gospels is generally thought to be
Mark
Literally, “synoptic” means
“together see.”
The Gospel of John shows many similarities with
the Dead Sea Scrolls.
In Jesus’ day, a Samaritan was
a member of a despised outsider group.
The book of Acts is really the second part of which Gospel?
Luke
“Orthodoxy” literally means
“right belief.”
In Jesus’ time, what power controlled Israel?
Rome
The person who provided rules for how Eastern Christian monks should live was
Basil
The medieval nun who wrote mystical songs was
Hildegard of Bingen
The religious order that has especially focused on teaching and scholarship is
Dominicans
The Scottish church leader who studied with John Calvin in Geneva was
John Knox.
Which of these books is found in the New Testament?
Hebrews
The beginning of the Muslim calendar is the Western year
622 c.e.
The Islamic month of fasting is called
Ramadan
The year 1 of the Muslim calendar dates from what event in the life of Muhammad?
escape from Mecca to Medina
The sacred book of Islam, which gives the sermons of Muhammad, is called
Qur’an (Koran).
The name given to Islamic mysticism is
Sufism
The branch of Islam that is found primarily in Iran and Iraq is
Shiite
Which country had a large Muslim population for almost 800 years?
Spain
The Shiite branch developed because
of a disagreement over the line of succession from Muhammad
A memory of what Muhammad said or did is called
hadith
At first, before they were instructed to face Mecca for prayer, followers of Muhammad faced toward what city for prayer?
Jerusalem
Muhammad’s job was
caravan driver.
Islam particularly stresses
oneness of God
Regarding the afterlife, Muslims believe
in heaven and hell.
One of the greatest examples of Islamic architecture is located in India and is called the
Taj Mahal.
The successor to Muhammad, for centuries a political as well as a religious figure, was called
caliph
Ramadan is the
name of the month in which Muhammad received revelation.
The month-long fast that observant Muslims keep involves
no eating or drinking of anything during the daylight hours.
The minaret is
a tower used to call Muslims to prayer.
Muhammad had his first revelations
in a cave
During the pilgrimage, men must wear the robe of Abraham, which is
a two-piece robe of white cloth.
Part of the pilgrimage ritual involves
throwing stones at pillars
Muhammad and his followers escaped from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina). This event
was the turning point, after which Muhammad gained success.
Muhammad was born and raised in
Mecca
At the Kabah, what object is venerated?
a meteorite
The major problem with a reliance on hadiths is that
some hadiths do not agree with each other.
Literally, the word “Muslim” means a person who
submits
The chanter who calls people to prayer is called
muezzin
The Sunni reform movement that began in Saudi Arabia is
Wahhabi
The Sunni reform movement that for a while took control of Afghanistan is called
Taliban
The word masjid (mosque) literally means a place of
prostration
The Turkish leader who ended the caliphate was
Kemal Ataturk
The countries that have a Shiite majority are
Iran and Iraq.
Malcolm X was inspired to see the racial inclusiveness of Islam through the influence of
a pilgrimage he made to Mecca.
Islam literally means
submission
The Sunni reform movement that began in India and became popular in Pakistan is called
Deobandi
Observant Muslims do not allow
alcohol
Which of the following is NOT typical of Islam?
belief in a Trinity
The phrase “Five Pillars of Islam” refers to
essentials of Muslim belief and practice.
Islam and Judaism are similar in that they both
make use of circumcision.
Muslims trace themselves back ultimately to what great patriarch?
Abraham
Mosque means “path”; the whole body of Islamic law, which guides a Muslim’s life.
False
Qiblah refers to the direction toward Mecca; the direction toward which Muslims pray.
True
A mosque is a Muslim place of worship.
True
Shiite refers to a minority branch of Islam that holds Muhammad’s genuine successors descended from his son-in-law, Ali.
True
Imam means “cube”; the square shrine at the center of the great mosque of Mecca.
False
Kabah is a devotional remembrance of Allah through the recitation of his ninety-nine names and other devotional practices.
False
Hirja means “submission”; the Muslim religion and the community of believers who have submitted themselves to Allah.
False
Jihad means “struggle”; the ideal of spreading Islamic belief and practice.
True
Sura means “successor”; a religious and political leader.
False
Sufism refers to a group of devotional movements in Islam.
True

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