Ch. 2 Russia Chapter

georgia’s capital

1st elected president


strong president

Boris Yeltsin


Vladimir Putin


not part of Europe or Russia (doesn’t fit realm criteria)


transition zone?


between Black/Caspian Sea

Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan

resisting Moscow’s rule

historic home of Muslim Tatars

T or F?

The Yeltsin administration negotiated with minority-based “republics” and kept them with Russia.

1812 Overture


commemorated Russian victories over foes

leader of Communists during Russian Revolution
V. I. Lenin
Capital city and Russian Revolution

capital = St. Petersburg

renamed Leningrad


Moscow was captial for Soviet Union


“Soviet Socialist Republic”

each of the 15 political entities in the Soviet Union

T or F?

The Soviet Empire was the legacy of czarist expansionism

eastward expansion slowed by…

harsh climatic conditions

great distances

warmer and end of a glacial period in Russia
Russia’s climate



Humid cold climate w/ cool summer of short, cool summer

During Soviet Union times, Ukraine supplied…
most of Russia’s food needs

T or F?

Soviet Union leaders wanted to reduce agric. imports, so they created a major irrigation project in colonies of Central Asia.

Siberia translation
“sleeping land” in Russian
Russian Plain
  • core area
  • continuation of the North European Lowland
  • bordered one east by Ural Mtns

port of Murmansk ice free most of the year because of…

warm water from the North Atlantic
Ural Mtns
  • seperates two plains
  • minerals fossil fuels
  • does have passes
  • souther end densely populated

West Siberian Plain
  • world’s largest unbroken lowland
  • contains permafrost in north
  • central zone is marshy
  • south has major cities on the Trans-Siberian Railroad

Central Siberian Plateau
  • East of Siberian Plain
  • like Siberian Plain
  • Sparsely populated

Yakutsk Basin
  • mountainous
  • east of Siberia

Eastern Highlands
  • East of Yakutsk Basin
  • ranges, ridges, valleys, volcanic mountains
  • Lake Baykal (deepest rift lake ing the world)
  • contains Kamchatka Peninsula with volcanic Mt. Klyuchevskaya

Russia’s most inhospitable zone


there is lumbering, a fur trade, and gold/diamond minding

northern part of Eastern Highland
Central Asian Ranges
  • southern Russia
  • glaciers that melt and send alluvium-laden water downstream to farms; enriches farms

8. The Caucasus
  • extension of Europe’s Alpine Mtns
  • southern border sharply defined by topography

Slavs in Ukraine
  • made Kiev the capital
  • established Novgorod on Lake Ilmen (in the north)
    • Rus — a state
    • imiportant trading centers betwwen German-speaking ports and Mediteranean

The Mongol Invasion
  • invaded Ukraine
  • the two Russes collapsed
  • citizens fled to forests and set up new “Russes”
    • including Moscow
      • ruler called Grand Duke
  • princes paid tribute to the Mongols


basin of Volga R.

major center of Islam (Tatar’s religion)

Grand Duchy of Muscovy

became a major military power during Ivan the Terrible’s rule (16th century)


rulers called themselves czars

claimed to be he heirs of the Byzantine emperors

The Cossacks

seminomadic people who lived in present-day Ukraine


leaders of eastern expansion, mainly through fur trade


constructed ostrogs (waystations) along rivers

Czar Peter the Great
  • 17-18th century
  • wanted to create modern, European Russia
  • built St. Petersburg as a forward capital (on doorstep of Swedish-held Finland)
    • became Russia’s leading port
  • incorporated Estonia in 1721

Czarina Catherine the Great
  • 18th century
  • Black Sea area (Crimea Peninsula, Odesa) gained
  • penetrated Caucasus (tried to get to Indian Ocean, but stopped at Britian-controlled Persia)
  • 1st American settlement by Russians (on Kodiak Island)

Fort Ross
erected in San Francisco area in 1812
A Russian Empire
  • took over Polish land (including the capital Warsaw)
  • took Finland from the Swedes in 1809
  • PREOCCUPIED WITH CENTRAL ASIA –> between Caspian Sea and western China
    • Islamic area, gained Muslim subjects
    • port of Vladivostok founded in 1860 on the Pacific Ocean

What halted Russian expansion
  • wanted to build trans-siverian railroad in 1892
  • had to cross Manchuria (territory of China); China refused
  • Russia invaded so that it could build the railroad
  • Japanese confronted Russia (Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905)
  • Japan took possesion of land

T or F?

The communist empire was the product of Moscow and the socialist revolution, not of the legacy of St. Petersburg and European Russia (during Czar times)


T or F?

Russia is unified by a dominant culture.






followed Lenin



saw more liberal future for Russia

capital moved to Moscow


away from Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

National rank in Soviet Union
S.S.R.’s divided based on ethnicities, with majority of Soviet Union’s ethnicities being in a region with the most power
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics

republics within republics


regions for smaller minorities

T or F?


The Soviet Union was only a federation in theory.

Soviet Union contradiction
seen as champion for opressed people, but it actually was involved with colonialism
Soviet planner principle objectives (2)
  1. to accelerate industrialization
  2. to collectivize agriculture

a grain-and-meat factory where agricultural efficiency would be at its peak (because of machines)
Lenin’s Tomb

David Remnick


30-60 million people lost their lives because of Soviet lust to keep power and control

prime objective of the Soviet Union regime
industrialization (successful)
why manufacturing in USSR extemely expensive?

manufacturers told where to locate (even if not where raw materials are)


absence of competition

Russian Federation Treaty




a commitement between Russia’s internal republics

said that they would cooperate with the new federal system


Chechnya didn’t sign

11 autonomous regions
49 provinces
6 territories
Russia’s 2 autonomous Federal cities


St. Petersburg

21 republics of Russia

recognized to accomodate substantial ethnic minorities in the population


they lie in several clusters

Russia chose a ________ over a unitary state system
federal system

one of the most defiant Regions



Primorskiy, Region of Vladivostok


because of distance decay

What is one of the biggest challenges for the Russian government?
the mistrust betwwen capital and subordinate areas
How did the Putin administration address the “key issue”

created 7 administrative units to increase Moscow’s authority over them

    • Central
    • Northwest
    • Volga
    • North Caucasus
    • Ural
    • Siberian
    • Far Eastern

What drives down life expectancy for men?

social disorders — alcoholism, suicide, etc.


General population: drug abuse, heavy smoking, bad diets

“The Geographical Pivot of History”

Halford Mackinder


west russia and east europe had natural protection/resource wealth = propelled to world power


Nicholas Spykman

first scholar to use term “rimland”


calculated that Eurasia’s periphery (not core) held the key to global power


thought Japan’s power was the beginning of that process

Why did Europe think Russia would become “European Russia”? (5)
  • ethnic ties
  • revival of Christian churches (there was communist atheism)
  • sprouting of Russian democracy
  • budding market economy
  • dependence of Europe on Russian energy supplies

Two things that strained Russian relations with U.S.
  1. negotiations with Iran about nuclear weapons
  2. U.S. intervention in Iraq

what stopped progress in Russia-Europe and Russia-U.S. relations?
Our critisism of Russi’a influence and treatment of people in Chechnya
“lost lands”

eastern Asia

land taken by China a century ago


Chinese immigrating to eastern Russia

According to Putin, Russia’s greatest challenge is…
to recover its superpower status
Central Industrial Region
  • “Moscow Region”
    • Moscow is the focus of a region containing 1/3 of Russian population

St. Petersburg
  • under the czars, focus of Russian political/cultural life
  • industrialization for Russia (10% of country’s manufacturing)

  • Arctic Circle
  • Kola Peninsula
  • naval base
  • remoteness sheilded it from German occupation
  • fishing port
  • container facility for cargo ships
  • has ice-free seasons because of warm N. Atlantic Drift Ocean Current

  • Ivan the Terrible wanted to make it the key port on route to maritime Europe
  • port for lumber shipments

the Volga River
Russia’s most important navigable river
Nizhniy Novgorod
automobile-producing “Soviet Detroit”
tire-producing center
heart of the textile industry
mining and metallurgical center, where lignite (brown coal) deposits are worked
  • region in Russian Core
  • extends along mid/lower Volga R. valley
    • “Volga Region”
  • history: transport food/raw materials
  • Changed:
    • Developed because far from Germans in WWII
    • Volga-Urals region large source of petroleum and natural gas
    • Transport system expanded
      • Volga-Don Canal — connects river to Black Sea
      • Moscow Canal
      • Mariinsk canals — link to Baltic Sea

Fiat-built auto assembly plant

in Tolyatti (The Volga Region)

one of the world’s largest of its kind

Internal Southern Periphery
  • Moscow tries to stabilize its minority “republics”
  • source for oil; important because of that

  • capital of Chechnya
  • was a major oil-industry center and service hub during the Soviet era

  • big muslim population
  • accused of helping Nazi’s; pop. exiled to Cen. Asia, resulting in deaths
  • tried to get independence in 1991
  • violent attaches between Moscow/Chechnya

  • In Internal Southern Periphery
  • half of pop. = buddhist
  • invited Dalai Lama in 2004

  • Internal Southern Periphery
  • many ethnicities

  • Internal Southern Periphery
  • of part of Chechnyan republic
  • Muslim majority

  • Internal Southern Periphery
  • no significant Muslim element
  • Cherkess

  • Black Sea coast
  • Sakartvelos
  • capital = Tbilisi
  • Josef Stalin was Georgian
  • diversified economy

  • External Southern Periphery

  • landlocked

  • rugged

  • Christian

  • war with Azerbaijan about Armenians in seperated territory (exclave) called Nagorno-Karabakh


 a seperated territory

  • External Southern Periphery
  • borders Caspian Sea
  • name of independent state and a province in neighboring Iran
    • Turkish people divided by Russian and Persian empires
  • Azeris = shi’ite muslims
  • oil/natural gas –> under the Soviets one of Moscow’s main sources of fuel
    • center of industry = Baki, capital

Baki-Ceyhan pipeline
  • U.S. gov’s preference
  • Azberjaini pipeline through Georgia, across Turkey to Mediterranean terminal at Ceyhan
  • 2005

The Urals Region
  • NOT an obstacle to eat-west transportation
  • metallic mineral resources = industrial development
  • strong bond with Central Industrial and Volga Regions in the Russian Core
  • SOME geographers say– it seperates “European” Russia from “Asian” Russia

Kuznetsk Basin (Kuzbas)
  • The Eastern Frontier
  • heavy manugacturing
  • supplied raw materials during beginning of Soviet times
  • leading city = Novoskibirsk — symbol of Russian enterprise in eastern interior

  • Kuznetsk Basin
  • one of oldest Russian towns in Siberia (17th century)

  • Kuznetsk Basin
  • steel-production from Ural’s bauxite

The Lake Baykal Area (Baykaliya)
  • The Eastern Frontier
  • dams/hydroelectric power (particularly Bratsk)

  • The Lake Baykal Area
  • main service center for the Siberian Region in north and the southeastern Russia area

Buryat Republic

neighboring land taken from China by the czars

part of the Eastern Frontier

  • contains riches
  • oil/natural gas — contributes significantly to Russia’s oil supply
  • hydroelectric power
  • Sakha (the Yakut Republic) in the east markes political geography

  • Baykal-Amur Mainline railroad
  • 1980s
  • p;arallel to Trans-Siberian Railroad
  • key to eastern frontier’s infrastructure that will help economic growth

The Russian Far East
  • Two parts:
    • mainland area
    • the large island of Sakhalin
  • offshore = productive fishing grounds
  • oil/gas reserves
  • Soviet leaders created incentives to move here
    • had communist-era advantages; no more
  • headquarters = Kharbarovsk

  • Russian Far East
  • “We Own the East”
  • military base
  • closed to foreigners
  • Moscow invested in its infrastructure

Bureya River Valley

a tributary of the Amur


in Russian Far East

  • Russian Far East
  • originally the Jewish Autonomous Region

How many republics does Russia have?

describe the soviet flag…


who was the last ruler of the Soviet Union?



Mikhail Gorbachev

Alaska was called…



Seward’s Folly

Seward’s Icebox

(Seward was the U.S. Secretary of State in 1867)



gold/oil was discovered

The “golden suite”

a set of rooms in the Catherine Palace in St. Petersburg


exemplifies 18th century Russian Baroque at its height

The heart of Moscow
The red square with the Kremlin, St. Basil’s Cathedral

Venice of the North

Peter’s “window on Europe”

Peter and Paul Fortress

Winter Palace

Hermitage Museum


Other names: Petrograd (during Russian Revolution), Leningrad

St. Petersburg
one of Russia’s most geographically active zones
Kamchatka Peninsula

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