the action of processes that causes bedrock near the surface to disintegrate into regolith
parent material/ original rock
physical/ mechanical weathering
disintegration of rock into smaller fragments; same mineral composition; increases surface area of rock
exfoliation; form of physical weathering where erosion removes overlying rock layers
creates type of jointing called sheeting; seen on exfoliation domes
chemical weathering
decomposition of rock resulting from mineral alteration processes
chemical reaction between minerals in a rock and the hydrogen in rain water
chemical union of free oxygen with metallic elements in minerals
acid action
most commonly due to the work of weak solutions of carbonic acid dissolving certain rocks; dissolves particularly limestone
mass wasting
downhill movement created by gravity
slopes that are mantled/covered with regolith collects at foot of the slope as __________
soil creep
gradual downhill movement of soil and regolith very slowly
rapid events of water, sediment, and debris cascades down slopes and valleys
slopes of erupting volcanoes
debris flow
watery and fast flow
mountain area flows
alpine debris avalanche
heaping up regolith material
periglacial system
refers to distinctive landforms and processes that take place in arctic/ tundra environtments (with strong annual weather cycles); Highly related to freezing/ thawing of water
mixing of materials from various soil horizons
thermal erosion
human activity disturbs permafrost surface cover leading to thermal erosion; permafrost melts to greater depth, causing soil above to collapse leading to thermokarst depressions and ground subsides

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