Chapter 1-3

Geography
What are individual features of the Earth’s surface called?
landforms
What are the three sections of the inside of the Earth?

core

mantle

crust

The inner core is ___________________

and the outer core is ________________.

solid;

melted, liquid metal

How thick is the mantle?
1800 miles
What is the most studied layer of the Earth?
crust
What is the theory that the crust is not an unbroken shell but is made up of moving plates or huge slabs of rock?
plate tectonics
What are the three types of earthquakes?

Those that:

pull apart

push against each other

slide past one another

What is a crack in the Earth’s crust called?
a fault
What are huge waves caused by undersea earhtquakes?
tsunamis
What is caused when magma breaks through the crust as lava?
volcano
What are the two types of volcanoes? Describe each.

1) cone-shaped: fiery burst of ashes and rock

2) flat: slow lava flows

What is the breaking of surface rocks by water, chemicals, and frost?
weathering
What is the wearing away of the surface by water, wind, and ice?
erosion
What are high peaks with steep or rugged slopes?
mountains
What are lower, more rounded peaks?
hills
What is a high, flat area that rises above the land around it?
plateau
What is a narrow piece of land that connects two larger pieces of land?
isthmus
What is a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides?
peninsula
What is a narrow body of water between two pieces of land?
strait
What is the air surrounding the earth?
atmosphere
What is the atmosphere made up of?
99% nitrogen and oxygen
What three things does the atmosphere do for us?

1) screens out dangerous rays from the sun

2) reflects some heat back into space

3) holds in enough heat to make life possible

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