Chapter 13 Test

Geography
What are the two most powerful forces shaping the geography of a culture?
Language and Religion
What are the boundaries between the world’s major faiths that cause conflicts?
Interfaith Boundaries
How many inhabitants are in Nigeria?
110
Is Nigeria a multilingual or monolingual country?
Multilingual
What religion lies in North Nigeria?
Islam
What religion lies in South Nigeria?
Christianity
What is the main ethnic group of the Muslims in the North?
Hausa-Fulani
What are the two culture cores of the Christian South?
Yoruba and Ibo
In the Nigerian census what are people not asked to state?
Religious preference
How many Christians are in Nigeria?
37 million
How many Muslims are in Nigeria?
55 million
How many people in Nigeria are neither Muslim nor Christian?
12 milion
How many Yorubas are Muslims?
2 million
In 1993 a man of what religion was elected President?
Muslim Yoruba
The Muslim North of Nigeria wanted to turn Nigeria into what?
Islamic Republic
In the 2000’s Nigeria was OPEC’s what ranking oil producer?
4th largest
What is the main religion of North Sudan?
Muslim
What is the main religion of South Sudan?
Christian
The Muslim North contains what percent of the population?
60%
What fraction of the Northern Sudans speak Arabic as a native language?
2/3
The North and South conflict of Sudan was intensified by the Muslim-dominated regime where, to impose Islam’s Sharia religious laws?
Khartum
What year did the Northerners of Sudan have a victory in its grasp?
1994
What four states make up the African Horn?
Eritrea, Ethiopea, Djibouti, Somalia
The heart of what place lies to be the cultural core area of Amharic Christians?
Former Mountain Kingdom
In 1974 what happened that the Amharic rulers still controlled Muslim Eritreans in the North, Muslim Somailis in the East, and an arc-shaped region to the West and South?
The last of Ethiopea’s emperors fell
A revolution created a new state of what out of Ethiopa?
Eritrea
Is Ethiopea monocultural or multicultural?
Multicultural
What type of people is Ethiopea covered by?
Coptic (Orthodox) Christians
What country is South Asia centered on?
India
in 1947 what became the political border between Islamic Pakistan and multicultural India?
Britians South Asian colonial empire
What three events of the 1980’s intensified the conflict of India?
Sikhs campaign for a greater independence, Muslim/Hindu holy shrine, Skirmishes
What state did the Sikhs demand as a greater independence?
Dunjab
Where is Hindu fundamentalism strongest?
North central South Asia
What religions is Fundamentalism affecting today?
All religions
When the Soviet Union was forced from Czar’s empire 3 centuries ago, who faced the task of satisfying the territorial demand of dozens of diverse people?
Socialist Planners
How many nationalities did the republics inherit in the Former Soviet Union?
over 100
Between what two seas did the soviets aquire 2 territories with extreme religions?
Caspian and Black Seas
What people are the Christians on the Black Sea side?
Armenians
What people are the Shiite Muslims on the Caspian sea side?
Azerbaigani
The Soviet communists in the Former Soviet Union wanted what type of state?
Atheistic
What was the largest exclave of Christian Armenia which was created as an enclave within Muslim Azerbaija?
Nagorno-Karabakah
What was another exclave?
Nakhichevan
What was another exclave?
Nakhichevan of Azerbaijan
What is the largest state in Central Asia?
Kazakhstan
What type of people are in the North of the Former Soviet Union?
Russian Christians
What type of people are in the South of the Former Soviet Union?
Islamic Muslims
What percent of the Former Soviet Union is Islamic?
47%
What percent of the Former Soviet Union belongs to Russian or Orthodox Church?
17%
What is the single most intractable problem in West Europe?
The Protestant majority and Catholic minority
The Protestant majority in North Ireland is what fraction of the total population?
2/3 (1.6 million)
The Protestant majority in North Ireland holds all what?
Economic and Political advantages
In 1998 what was adopted in April in Northern Ireland?
Anglo-Irish peace agreement
The intrafaith boundary of North Ireland isn’t about what but instead about opportunities, civil rights, opportunity access, political organization, and nationalism?
Religion
What are the symbols of strife in Northern India?
Church and Cathedral
What is the majority of the Islamic Realm?
Sunni
What is the minority of the Islamic Realm?
Shiite
What was the most destructive modern war?
Iran-Iraq conflict of the 1980’s
What group is on Iraq’s side of the Iran-Iraq conflict of the 1980’s?
Sunni
What group is on Iran’s side of the Iran-Iraq conflict of the 1980’s?
Shiite
What percent of Muslims are Shiite?
12%
What two other places besides the Islamic Realm is there also another conflict between the Shiite and Sunni?
Lebanon and pilgrimage to Mecca
What is the drive back to the basics of a religions faith?
Religious Fundamentalism
What are the five reasons for Birth of Religious Fundamentalism?
1. Frustration of society’s morals and values
2. Loss of religious authority
3. Failure to achieve economic goals
4. Loss of a sense of local control
5. Sense of violation of a religion’s core territory
What event reinforced Americans to drive fundamentalism with Islam?
September 11th
What four things have diffused notions of individual liberties, sexual equality, freedom of choice, consumerism, and secularism?
Education, radio, television, travel
Has the extent and speed of cultural diffusion and innovation accelerated or decelerated?
Accelerated
T/F: The drive toward fundamentalism in Christianity and Islam alike is creating a climate of mistrust that has already led to strife.
True
What among the Christian religions has resisted innovations deemed to be incompatible with the fundamentals of the faith?
Roman Catholic Church
The Christian religions tend to be more what?
Male-dominated
T/F: All Muslim communities adhere precisely to the rules of the Qu’ran such as the prohibition on the use of alcohol.
False
Where is conservation of the laws of Islam the strongest?
Sudan to Pakistan
T/F: The laws of Islam are applied with equal force through the Muslim religious realm.
False
What does countering Muslim fundamentalism entail?
Political Risk
During the revolution in Iran, who imposed the most basic of Shiite religious rules and practices upon their followers?
Imams
Who was the Shah replaced by?
An Ayatollah
What is an ayatollah?
Supreme religious leader
When in Iran was one of the significant early manifestations of the tend toward fundamentalism?
1970’s and 1980’s
In the 1990’s what group seized control of much of Afghanistan and asserted the strictest fundamentalist regime in the contemporary world?
The Taliban
T/F: The Taliban provided a haven for the activities of Islamic extremist who sought to promote an Islamic holy war, or jihad, against the West in general, and the United States in particular.
True
Who was one of the key figures in the extreme Islamic fundamentalist movement of the past decade?
Osama bin Laden
The beliefs of bin Laden and his associates can be traced to a form of Islam known as what?
Wahhabi Islam
Wahhabi Islam was developed in opposition to what?
Sacrilegious practices on the part of Ottoman rulers
What is the most important force that has fueled the violent path on which the extreme movement has embarked?
The view that infidels have invaded the Islamic holy land over the past 80 years
What is a principal goal of the extreme Islamic fundamentalists?
To bring an end to what are seen as improper territorial incursions
What is a second geographically related concern of movement activistis?
The diffusion of modern culture and technology and its impact on traditional lifestyles and spiritual practices
What is a key to avoiding the division of the world into mutually antagonistic religious realms?
To promote an atmosphere in which feelings of war do not become widespread
What has created a split between orthodox and liberal members of the Catholic Church?
Birth control debate
T/F: Interfaith and intrafaith boundaries can be equally violent.
True
What is the most important part of globalization?
Economics
What is a supreme religious leader?
Ayatollah
Who was the most famous Ayatollah?
Khomeneini
What is a piece of territory surrounded by a political unit not of its kind?
Enclave
What is an example of an enclave?
Nagorno-Karabakh
What is a separate piece of territory?
Exclave
What is an example of an exclave?
Nakhichevan
What type of state goes by the rules of the Qu’ran?
Islamic Republic
What are the laws of the Islamic Republic based on?
Swiss Civil Code
What is the idea of and Islamic Republic?
Sharia law
When arose after the Civil War?
Darfur
In Darfur who attacked who?
Janjawid (Muslims) attacked Non-Arabs (Black Africans)
What percent of Sri Lanka is Buddhist?
70%
Sri Lanka is an interfaith between what two religions?
Buddhist and Hindu
In 1917 what fell with the Russian Revolution?
Russian Empire
Who wanted an atheistic state in the Russian Empire?
Communists
Russia is a dominant what?
Federal Republic
How many states make up the Russian Empire?
15
What was made after World War One?
Yugoslavia
What type of territory is Yugoslavia?
Austro-Hungarian
How many major ethnic groups are in Yugoslavia?
7
How many minor ethnic groups are in Yugoslavia?
17
What states came out of Yugoslavia?
Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, and more…
What two religions are fighting in Bangladesh?
Muslims and Hindus
What two religions are fighting in the Phillipines?
Islam (5%) and Christian (95%)
What religions are fighting in Israel?
Judaism, Muslim, and Christian

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