Chapter 2 Test

Geography
Whole tangible lifestyle of people, but also their prevailing beliefs?
Culture
Culture is not ___________ predetermined.
Genetically
What is the classification order of culture components from largest to smallest?
Realm, system, complex, trait
What is an area within which a particular culture system prevails?
Culture region
What is a single attribute of culture?
Culture trait
What is a distinct combination of traits?
Culture complex
What are culture complexes with common traits?
Culture system
What is an assemblage of culture regions or geographic regions?
Culture realm
What are the five key topics of cultural geography?
Cultural landscape, hearths, diffusion, perception, and enviorments
Who is the most closely identified geographer with cultural landscape?
Carl Sauer
What is all the human induced changes on the natural landscape?
Cultural landscapes
What is the notion that successive cultures leave their imprint on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape?
Sequent occupancy
What are the sources of civilization, outward from which radiated the ideas, innovations and ideologies that would change the world?
Culture hearths
Where did early culture hearths develop?
In the valleys and basins of the great river systems of SW Asia, N Africa, S & SE Asia, and E Asia
Where did the middle and south american culture hearths evolve?
Highlands
What began as culture hearths but their growth and development had a wider, sometimes global impact?
Civilizations
What is the process of dissemination, the spread of an idea or innovation from its source area to other cultures?
Cultural diffusion
What is an innovation or idea that develops in a source area and remains strong there while spreading outward?
Expansion diffusion
What are the three types of expansion diffusion?
Contagious, hierarchical, stimulus
What type of diffusion affects nearly all adjacent individuals?
Contagious diffusion
What type of diffusion has the the main channel of diffusion which some segment of those who are susceptible to or adopting what is being diffused?
Hierarchical diffusion
What type of diffusion has an idea or innovation that can not be readily and directly adopted by a receiving population?
Stimulus diffusion
What is an actual movement of people who have adopted the idea or innovation and who carry it to a new, perhaps distant locale where they proceed to disseminate it?
Relocation diffusion
What are the four types of relocation diffusion?
Acculturation, Assimilation, Transculturation, Migrant diffusion
What is it when cultures make contact through relocation diffusion, one culture often comes to dominate another?
Acculturation
What is the central question called for how cultures and nature interact?
Cultural ecology
What is it called when the adoption of cultural elements from the dominant culture can be so complete that the two cultures become indistinguishable?
Assimilation
What is it called when contact occurs that is equal in numbers, strength and complexity, in such cases, a genuine exchange follows, in which both cultures function as sources and adopters?
Transculturation
What is it called when an innovation originates somewhere and enjoys strong, but brief adoption there?
Migrant diffusion
What is it called when forces can and do work against diffusion and the adoption of new ideas?
Time distance decay
What are intellectual constructs designed to help us understand the nature and distribution of phenomena in human geography?
Perceptual regions
What is it called when the natural enviorment merely serves to limit choices available to culture?
Cultural enviorments
What cultures don’t transform their landscape?
Nomadic people, and several people living in desert margins
The areas where success and progress prevailed were the places where the first large clusters of what?
Human population
What is the appearance of a particular technique or still a device in widespread areas that wasn’t from diffusion?
Independent invention
The invention of the wheel took 2000 years to reach from where to where?
Mesopotamia to Egypy
How many perceptual regions exist in the United States?
12
Who is the notable geographer who studied the perceptual regions of the south?
Wilbur Zelinsky
What is the most distinct perceptual region of the USA?
the South
What is the view that the natural enviorment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life?
Enviormental determinism
What is the geographic viewpoint that holds that human decision making is the crucial factor in cultural development?
Possibilism
What is an area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the enviorment consequences of dominant political, economic arrangements and understandings?
Political ecology

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