Chapter 2 Vocab

Geography
Demographic Transition
Society’s change in natural increase, fertility, and mortality rates over time.
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics
Agricultural Revolution
The time around 8000 B.C. when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied on hunting and gathering.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children per woman in a society
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Overpopulation
A problem that results when an area’s population exceeds the capacity of an environment to support it at an acceptable standard of living.
Ecumene
The area of the Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Physiological Density
In a region, the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage by which a population grows in one year.
Doubling Time
The number of years it takes for a population to double.
Life Expectancy
Measures the average number of years a newborn infant can live at current mortality levels.
Industrial Revolution
Began in England second half of the 18th century. A conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market.
Medical Revolution
In the second half of the 19th century when medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to less developed countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
The condition when CBR declines to the point where it equals the CDR, and the NIR approaches zero.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph that displays a country’s population by age and gender groups.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people who are too old or too young to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per hundred females in the population.
Epidemiologic Transition
Focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology
The branch of medical science concerned with incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high percentage of the population.
Census
A means of collecting statistical data on a population through a set of surveys mailed to every address in the nation.

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