Chapter 5

Geography
Culture
A learned system of shared beliefs and ways of doing things that guide a person’s daily behavior. P75
Culture region
Area of the world in which people share certain culture traits. P75
Culture traits
Elements of culture. P75
Ethnic groups
Cultural groups of people who share learned beliefs and practices. P75
Multicultural
A mixture of different cultures within the same country or community. P754
Race
A group of people who share inherited physical or biological traits. P75
Acculturation
The process of cultural changes that result from long-term contact with another society. P77
Symbol
A word, shape, color, flag, or other sign that stands for something else. P77
Domestication
The growing of a plant or taming of an animal by a people for their own use. P79
Subsistence agriculture
A type of farming in which farmers grow just enough food to provide for themselves and their own families. P80
Commercial agriculture
A style of farming in which farmers produce food for sale. P80
Civilization
A highly complex culture with growing cities and economic activity. P80
Primary industries
Economic activities that directly involve natural resources or raw materials such as farming and mining. P83
Secondary industries
Economic activities that change raw materials created by primary industries into finished products. P83
Tertiary industries
Economic activities that handle goods that are ready to be sold to consumers. P84
Quaternary industries
Economic activities that include specialized skills or knowledge and work mostly with information. P84
Gross national product
The value of all goods and services that a country produces in one year within or outside the country. P84
Gross domestic product
The value of all goods and services produced within a country. P84
Developed countries
Industrialized countries that have strong secondary, tertiary, and quaternary industries. P84
Developing countries
Countries in different stages of moving toward development. P84
Free enterprise
An economic system in which people not government, decide what to make, sell, or buy. P85
Factors of production
The natural resources, money, labor, and entrepreneurs needed for business operation. P85
Entrepreneurs
People who use their money and talents to start a business. P85
Market economy
An economy in which consumers help determine what is to be produced by buying or not buying certain goods and services. P85
Command economy
An economy in which the government owns most of the industries and makes most of the economic decisions. P85
Traditional economy
Economy based on custom and tradition.. P85
Democracy
A political system in which a country’s people elect their leaders and rule by majority. P86
Unlimited government
Governments that have total control over their citizens. P86
Limited government
Government in which government leaders are held accountable by citizens through their constitutions and democratic processes. P86
Scarcity
Situation that occurs when demand is greater than supply. P87
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of a species that cam be supported by an area. P89

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