Chapters 8-10

Geography
Agribusiness
commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agriculture
the deliberate effort to modify a portion of the Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic grain
Balance of power
condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of counties.
Boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state’s territory
cereal grain
a grass yielding grain for food
chaff
husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
city state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
colonialism
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
colony
a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
combine
a machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
commercial agriculture
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
compact state
a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
crop
grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
crop rotation
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
desertification
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
development
a process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
double cropping
harvesting twice a year from the same field.
elongated state
a state with long narrow shape
fair trade
alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
federal state
an internal organization of state that allocates most powers to units of local government
foreign direct investment
investment made by foreign company in the economy of another country
fragmented state
a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
frontier
a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
gender empowerment measure
compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
gender related development index (GDI)
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
grain
seed of cereal grass
green revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high yield seeds and fertilizers.
gross domestic product (GDP)
the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally 1 year)
horticulture
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
hull
the outer covering of a seed
human development index (HDI)
indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education and life expectancy.
imperialism
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
intensive subsistence agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
landlocked state
a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
microstate
a state that encompasses a very small land area
milkshed
the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
relatively developed country (more developed country)
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
less developed country (developing country)
a country that is relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
paddy
malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
pastoral nomadism
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
pasture
grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land use for grazing.
perforated state
a state that is completely surrounded by another one
plantation
a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
primary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from earth’s surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing and forestry.
prime agricultural land
the most productive farmland
productivity
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
prorupted state
an otherwise compact sate with a large projecting extension.
ranching
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
reaper
a machine that cuts grain standing in the field
ridge tillage
system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
sawah
flooded field for growing rice
secondary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
seed agriculture
reproduction of plants through animal introduction of seeds, which results from sexual fertilization
shifting cultivation
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
slash and burn agriculture
another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning debris.
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free form control of its internal affairs by other states.
spring wheat
wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
state
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
structural adjustment program
economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade
subsistence agriculture
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family
sustainable agriculture
farming methods that preserve long term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
swidden
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
tertiary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
thresh
to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
transhumance
the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
transnational corporation
a company that conducts research, operates factories and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters are located.
truck farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
unitary state
an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
value added
the gross domestic value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
vegetative planting
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
wet rice
rice planted on dryland in a nursery and them moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
winnow
to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
winter wheat
wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer.

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