Contemporary China Final

Geography
Trends of population growth in China; historical, post-1949, reasons?
-Historical growth due to high mortlaity & fertility, labor-intensive, family centered peasant economy.

-Since 1949 the population doubled from 542 million to 1.1 billion in 1989.

-Reasons for this change:
1)labor intensive economy
2)peace & unification
3)promises of communist regime
4)absence of planning/control
drop in mortality(LE in 57′ was 57, 90′ was 68 and 2010 is 74)

Reasons for flucuations in Chinas population since 1949
-Failed great leap forward, and famine caused dip.
-Ideology & policy of Mao was that birth control was a WESTERN/ BOURGEOISIE idea
-1970s lead to the Wan Xi Shao(Late, Sparse, few) program- marry later([email protected]/[email protected]), sparse-wait between having children, Few-fewer children(optimum is 2); This voluntary program accounted for declining BR in 1970s.
-1979 One-child policy= sharp decline in BR.
Reasons for mortality reduction in China after 1949
-Peace
-Publich health: vaccinations, medical personnel(“Barefoot Doctors”) in countryside.
-Demographics- higher # of young people so less people dying.
What is china’s proportion of young & elderly and how do you calculate depende
Sex Ratio of China
-Men outnumber women
2009:103(103 men to 100 women)
-Lots of maternal mortality; women have low status as result tend to die from child-birth related deaths.
-High sex ratio at birth (2000:117); current sex ratio under 5 is 122!
What is Dida wuba Renduo? How did Mao feel about population? Quotes? Ren Kou? What is a general term for this ideology of the time period. and who is Ma Yin-Chu?
-1950’s was a baby boom, 1st census counted 583 million chinese in 1953
-Dida Wuba Renduo- Big territory, abundant resources, large population.
-Mao was infavor of population growth, birth control was western thought, a “means of killing off the chinese w/o shedding blood”, his quotes include:
1)”Every stomach comes with to hands attached”
2)”Ren Kuo”- KNOW, means Person Mouth, symbolizing the producer/consumer interation of a population

-Mao needed people for mass mobilization, e.g. GLF for iron/steel production.

-Termed “Leftist Population Theory”, more people the better, Malthusianisn is taboo; I.e. Ma Yin-Chi, the president of Peking University spoke in favor of malthusian logic and control of birth rate, and was labeled “Lifelong opponent of the Party.” jailed until Mao’s death.

What was Wan Xi Shao? When?
Late, Sparse, Few
-Late marriage: 1950 marriage law enforced marriage of women @ 18/men 20, recommended later 25 women/28 men(urban) & 23 women/25 men(rural); also needed recommendation from employer.
-Sparse: increase intervals between birth to 4 years.
-Few: less births, 2 per family(revolutionary idea!)

-It was voluntary and VERY effective; TFR in 1970 was 5.8 and 2.8 in 1979. May have also had to do w/ economic development.

The one-child policy: When? Goal? How’d it work?
-1979, goaled at controlling population w/in 1.2 billion by 2000(failed)
-How:
1)Incentives: signd pledges, cash(increased salary, preferential treatment for child, pension(increased due to lack of support from children after retirement)

2)Penalties- Fine/fee(changed to “fee” to indicate paying society for additional burden), HEFTY AMOUNT, can be several times someones salary.

-Propoganda like using more asexual terms such as “Airen” or lover to indicate no gender preference, officials held responsible for their regions, and birth control devices widely available
-More relaxed in rural/minority areas.

Evaluations of the effects of One-child policy: Household responsibility, fertility, sex ratio, Marriage squeeze, Women status, elderly support, labor? Family? Little emporers? adoption?
-Fertility decline: TFR in 2011 is 1.5, was 2.8 in 1979
-rural/urban difference- rural Chinese depend on children, govt decided in late 1980’s to develop of “Household Responsibility system” instead of the commune system that was in effect for last 30 years, meant more incentives to work hard and increase labor resources, more child labor meant more personal “profit”. 1-child and Household system contradict one another and arrive at same time.

-High sex ratio @ birth, in 2000 was 117(107 1st birth, 150 2nd birth, 160 3rd birth) caused by sex-selective abortion and infanticide(both illegal)
-Sex ratio is slowing down, encouraging sense of social changes.

-“Marriage squeeze”: Missing womenl women trafficking because there are so many more boys than girls, they becoming of marriable age and can’t find wives, this imbalance called “Marriage squeeze”, so women are taken from poor parts of China and sent off to wealthier as wives.
-women status: one would think less women means inproved status but hard because one-child is so intrusive, pregnancy now public, “neighborhood groups keep track, encourage abortion of 2nd child, DAUGHTER IN LAW BLAMED FOR HAVING A GIRL.

-Support elderly: Reduced # of children and increased health(longer living) is hard on for china to support elderly, Also early forced retirement 60(women) and 65(men).

-Shortage of young workers, only-child couples now encouraged to have 2 children.

-Family structure broken, few relatives that used to be a huge part of chinese people.

-“Little Emperors”: only child center of attention, obesity is problem

-Adoption: China is #1 source of adoptees to the US.

Minority groups of china: how many, autonomous regions? autonomous prefectures? Religions officially recognized?
-55 govt recognized non-Han “Minority nationalities”, ethnic groups.
-autonomous regios are areas where education, dialect in schools, religion, etc are approved to be pradctice
-Autonomous prefectures- areas w/in non-autonomous regions that are approved to practice ethnic culture.
-5 religions: Buddhism, islam, Catholism, protestant, Daoism; anything else is ILLEGAL.

-China shows off it’s minorities in theme parks of ethnic minorities; Olympics.

Gender status in China: -origin(confucianism)
-daughter liable
-Brideprices & Dowry
-functional role/best marriages
-whats women status in marriage-Under Mao & After Mao
-one-child policy on women
-origin in Confucianism: The ideology that guides chinese on morality and social roles in society; dictates that women obey male family members; role of any person in society defined by relation to others; i.e. in family daughter defined in relation to parents(father) and wife role defined in relation to husband, mother in relation to son.; PATRIARCHY- defined by other male member sof family.

-Daughters are liable because they are Patrilocal, meaning they “marry out” leaving family to husbands family, called “spilled water” to natal family, waste of resources to invest and then lose, whereas son adds to and stays w/ family, adding to labor source.

-BRIDEPRICES: compensation to wife’s family for raising her, large sum of money or resources; DOWRY- gift of wifes family to the couple, usually something for household, much smaller than brideprice.

-Marriage status:Marriage is PRAGMATIC, not just about love it’s something your supposed to/plan to do; it TRANSACTIONAL(brideprice/dowry), “MATCHING DOORS” meaning best marriages are of people from same financial class, husband is usually superior in height/educaton/age, some arranged marraiges occur.

-Women’s status:Reproduction, is she able to, how many, can she produce a son? She is suppposed to start having kids if she can’t then man can seek a CONCUBINE, POLYGAMY also accepted, foot-binding also common for beauty.

-Under Mao: Egalitarian for gender “equality”, created 1950 Marriage law abolishing arranged marriages, restrict brideprice, prohibit concubinage/foot-binding/child marriages(change against last 5,000 years of culture), women were encouraged to join labor force “half the sky” to contribute to economy, encouraged marrying of farmer/working class over rich(Bourgeoisie), promote feminism that women are just like men-can drive tracors, buses, etc; not so much about education/feminity more about society/economy.

-After Mao: 2001 marriage law allowed women to divorce by assigning blame(i.e. affairs) which was BIG CHANGE; marriage now used as a means to get ahead, marry up in society(wealthy husband); polygamy returns(not legally), Marriage migration occurs w/ women in poor areas to make way to developed in east

-One child policy: surveillance of women’s lives, status tied to reproduction, forced/sex-selective abortion(pressured), sterization, infanticide, “Missing girls”, adoption/stolen babies.

Economy in China: Agriculture, Industry(history, walking 2 legs, import subsitution vs export processing), Services
1)Agriculture:
-11% of GDP, 40% of labor force
-intensive farming: maximize yield per unit of land, lots of people/manual labor per acre of farmland(opposite US).
-variety of crops to maximize land use

2)Industry:
-49% of GDP, 27& of labor force(efficient sector, continued investment): History:
-1950s= heavy industry(iron,steel), due to soviet influence, but didnt work for china, GLF failure
-1960s=”walking on 2 legs”- balance agriculture and industry
-1970s=Move from import subsitution(sell raw materials and buy imported industrialized good abroad, dependent) move to export processing(manufacture processed goods for export not domestic usage); lots of labor intensive manufacturing
-1990s to 2000s= high-tech, IT, automobile, high end products

3) Services:40% GDP, 33% of Labor Force
-inefficient compared to industry in labor force, but still a HUGE sector
-services mostly lower end, but increasingly high-end producer services(law,accounting, management)

Economic reforms: Mao then Deng
-Mao:
1) politics more important than economic development
-egalitarianism is more important than efficiency
-collectivation more important than privatization; not until recently was privatization looked at w/ lots of suspicion.

2)Deng:
-Focus on economic growth
-reward specialization
-collectivization
-responsibility system formed: agriculture had household responsibility system replace communes, the success led to movement in private industry or township village enterprises(TVE), state owned enterprises(SOE) reformed or closed.
-leads into open-door policy

What was Dengs open door policy and 1st SEZS? WHEN? WHERE/WHY?
-Followed success of Newly industrializied economies; S. Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong
-Open of eastern coastal regions known as “Golden Coastline” Special Economic Zones; after 1st SEZ success more opened along coast of China

-1979 1st SEZs:
-Shenzhen b/c it borders HK,”Front shop, back factory”, HK was industrialized and outgrowing its’ economy so it was a way to send industries across boarder to do production.
Zhuhai-Boarders Macao; similar to HK, but less success, Macao never really industrialized.
Shantau- Home of overseas Chinese

-1st SEZs were demonstration effect to HK, Macao & Taiwan as a message that they were ready for new way of development.

Shantau, Xiamen; 1st places open to foreign investors, tax incentives to build, experiment far from Beijing.

Open-door policy timeline: 1979, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996-2000, 1999,2006-2010
1979-1st SEZs(Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, Xiamen)
1984-14 open coastal cities
1988- Hainan(5th SEZ)
1992- Deng’s Southern Tour
1996-2000- 9th five-year plan(narrow inequality gap)
1999-Western Development program- didnt want west to fall behind
2006-2010: 11th five-year plan(Harmonious society, scientific development): more equality, not “scientific” having regions grow faster than others.
7th 5-year plan:3 economic belt, mao vs. deng regional development, consequences of regions, Gini Coefficient?
7th 5-year plan: Three economic belts-
1)West region- agriculture & animals, too harsh for industry
2)Central Region- Mineral Resources
3)East region-Industry
-Mao: avoid coasts, industries inland for security, Deng made coasts most productive, brought foreign investors in, focused other areas on what they could do well, wanted coast rich first and other regions to follow, but west stil far behind east also where most minorities live.
-High Gini coefficient: highly unequal when about 0.4(currently 0.47) ratio gap of richest(Shanghai) vs poorest provinces GDP; urban vs. rural
Level of urbanization in China: 1949, 1982, 2006, 2015; events in 2008/9/10/11
-1949: 11% urbanization, mostly rural
-1982: 21%, around time economic reform started, still very rural but moving toward jobs in cities.
-2006: 43%-effects of economic; rapid rise in urbanization
-2015:>50%
-2008(snowstorm kill 60, strand millions), 2009-factories close, migrants return home early for Chinese new year(no jobs), 1/4 of HK enterprises in Pearl river delta close; 2010- Foxconn suicides and strikes over bad working conditions(7 days/week, 10hrs/day), raised wages 30%.
Measures of migration: Flow, particular regions? Is it legal to move(household reg books)? Floating population?
-Flow measure: whether somebody has changed residence from 1 pt of time to another; intercountry(1990-3%;2000-7%) chinese becoming more mobile.
-Particular flows:
-Hunan, Guangxi, Jiangxi–> Guangdong
-Hebei, Zhejiang, Jiangsu–> Beijing/Tianjin

-legal to move but won’t recieve same benefits of people w/ “Household registration books”(HUKOU!); rural has farm, etc & urban has housing/healthcare/education
-Floating population is total # of people away from where they’re registered(their Hukou is located); (2005-150 million, 2010-211 million, 2025-250 million projected and increasing).

Life of migrant families; school, remittance, split-households
-Rent out villages w/in the city
-children have hard time getting into local schools so some migrants build own school
-remittance: money sent back to rural families from urban migrants; used to remodel houses, helps son find a wife.
-Split households- parents leave children behind w/ grandparents, wives, some children see parents once a year some less.
What is diaspora: Traditional, modern, multiple meanings?how many chinese abroad? Where? Huaqiao/huayu?
Diaspora is of greek origin meaning migration and colonization.
-Jew culture used as loss of homeland, collective memory of oppression, more modern way of looking at it is supermobility, flexible identities & citizenship.
-In general, talking about groups of people who’ve been dispersed from common ancestral homeland, can go past 1st generation to children/descendents.

Multiple meanings
-Its a PROCESS(of being away from homeland)
-It’s a PLACE(A settlement)
-It’s a spatial network; i.e. mainland, taiwain, HK

-35 million estimated Chinese outside of PRC/Taiwan; not huge but man very active in trade and their impact.
-80% are in Asia(75% of which are in SE); 13% in Americas.
-Huaqiao=people of chinese origin living outside of PRC, has to do w/ SPACE.
-Huayu= People of chinese ancestry, has to do w/ ETHNICITY

Whats it mean to be chinese? Heterogenous? Chineseness? Romantic vision? identity? Ethnicity construction?
Heterogeneous- dialect, religion, ideology, cuisine
Chineseness- transcends geographic borders & ideological & political differences;
-e.g. Tiger mom book sees Chinese as draconian, tough
-WANG GANGWU: Diaoyu Islands disputes between China/Japan; HK people more concerned about sovereignty than mainland chinese, but Japanese as common enemy, bring unity among chinese and HK sides w/ china on island dispute.

-HELEN SIU: Romantic vision of motherland for immigrants, cultured past, descendents of early migrants develop romanticized view as is seen through China Town style of architecture, cuisine, culture resembling old china at time when 1st immigrants came.
-Ethnicity is constructed e.g. people are Taiwanese but not Chinese, b/c not part of mainland china, example of new identity/ethnicity coming into being.

The origins of Chinese Diaspora: Expeditions, Migration push and pulls: SE Asia and America-1800s work, Exclusion act, immigration act, immigration and nationality act amendment, smuggling, LA today, chinese celebrities.
Expeditions-
1)3rd century missions to report on countries beyond Nanyang(South Seas)
2)15th century(Ming)- ZHENG HE resulted in lot of info sent back, development of trade, so successful it was one of the themes of Beijing Olympics in 2008.

MIGRATION:
-Push: rural villages of Guangdong, Fujian, Guangxi due to heavy population and poor.
-Pull: SE Asia during 19th century colonial period, chinese were middlemen(traders) between colonial and laborers, enterprising but seen as part of exploitation leading to roots of post-WWII racial tensions after colonials leave.
-Another PULL: From Americas in 1850s gold rush, 1860-1880s transcontinental railroad workers, farmers, laborers- SOJOURNERS(come w/ intention of returning home & generating remittance) but ended up staying behind creating tensions as they were seen as inassimilable.
-1882: Chinese exclusion Act- federal law passed in response to complaints by workers on W.Coast that competition from Chinese immigrants was driving down their wages; suspended immigration 10 years, and chinese ineligible for naturalization.
-1924 Immigration act- national origins quota system- chinese considered unassimilable,Asian Exclusion Act which made Asians ineligible for naturalizations and effectively banned.
-1965 Immigration and Nationality Act Amendements: revoked the Exclusion act and instead based immigration off of preference system for occupational skils and allowing immigrants w/ family, residents of US to come.

-Smuggling: Source=FUJIAN, controlled by “Snakeheads”, many die, owe debts and work sweatshops/restaurants, pressured to send good news coming bringing more smuggling.
-Dip in immigration during SARS outbreak
-In LA, increase in CHinese in San Gabriel Valley, more vietnamese than chines in China Town.

-Chinese celebrities: Michelle Kwan, a chinese-america, still considered chinese, “American outshines Kwan” headline, notion of “Foreigners on permanent basis”

Hong Kong and Macao:
-HK is in Pearl river delta mouth,consists of isalnds, Kowloon, famous deep Victoria harbor, and rural New territories.
-Macao is across from HK, west of mouth, not as favorable harbor, no real industialized resources, instead a big gambling area,mostly chinese

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