Contemporary China

Geography
What were the foxcomm suicides?
13 suicides in company plant called Foxcomm; makes ipads and other accessories; worked in very depressing setting 10hrs/day 7days/week. very low wages.
What is the largest economy and when will china be it?
-USA is #1
-China will be in 2016, just passed Japan
When were the Beijing Olympics? What do they signify? why were they controversial?
8/8/08
-“birds nest” name of stadium; “Water cube” name of pool stadium.
-controversy was that facilities only built for olympics and never used again; dislocated a lot of people.
What are some indications of China’s development into the global world?
-Held Olympics & World Expo
-Winning gold medals in sports(can dedicate funds towards athletics)
-In 2008 Chinese astronauts first space walk

-Good healthcare as seen in the lack of casualties in H1N1 outbreak
What are some recent negative events in China going on?
-Foxcomm suicides
-Violent demonstrations in Xinjiang(NW china) from minority groups(uighurs) left 156 dead, 1000 injured.
-Scandal year(2008) lots of goods contaminated
-8.0 Earthquake(2008) in Sichuan area, 70,000 confirmed dead.
-JANUARY 2008: SNOWSTORM struck China, killed 60+ people caused $7 billion in damage; STRANDED 800,000 in Guangzhou.**
China over the decades:
-What happened in 1949-1959-1969-1979-1989-1999-2009?
-1949: FOUNDING OF PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA, (OCT. 1 1949)
-1959: GREAT LEAP FORWARD- radical movement by Mao to try and push country forward into international world economics; HUGE FAILURE-resulted in millions dying from starvation due to devotion to industry and loss of farming
-1969: Cultural Revolution(1966-1976): Mao’s Cultural agenda to move country to new way of thinking; denouces all traditional thoughts, anything capitalisms, people persecuted, books burned.
-1979: Mao Died(1976), economic reforms, new political powers, less radical.
-1989: TIANANMEN(Means “Gates of Heaven & Peace) SQUARE; Students gather to mourn death of beloved leader, snowballed into demonstrations, joined by works against govt; Talks failed& army/tanks opened fire, killing thousands(Govt says 100’s)
-1999: China accepted into World Trade Organization(Accepted as part of international community); must adhere to rules of labor/work, worker treatment; ALSO- China wins bed for 08′ olympics & 2010 World Expo.
-2009: 60th anniversary of PRC; Beijing Olympics; Shanghai Expo; #2 Economy
“American’s Perception of China has been shifting over time”- Who said this and what was his timeline/reasoning? (19th century->PRC->1950’s->Cultural Revolution-> Nixon visit-> Death of Mao-> Trade relations-> US today(Bombing, spy planes & 9/11)
-Ronald Knapp(1983)
-19th Century China: “A sleeping dragon”, very weak, inactive; inability to defend self as seen in Opium wars and TREATY OF NANKING(1842)
-1949 Founding of PRC, renewed energy.
-1950’s: Korean war; Cold war(Axis)-denounced by UN
-GREAT LEAP FORWARD(1958); (USA Response during this time was “Containment” of Chinese expansion.)
-1960’s: Cultural Revolution; (To USA- “CHINA WENT MAD)
-1972: NIXON VISIT- Shift image in US, Maybe China not as bad as the problems of American life(poverty/drugs/crime)
-1976: Death of Mao- end of radicalism and new open door economic reform policy set by DEN XIAOPING; US sees china as BIG MARKET.
-2000: China given permanent Normal Trade Relations, even though shaky human rights allegations.
-1999-US “Accidental” bombing of Chinese embassy in Belgrade.
-2001- U.S. Spy plane spotted off China’s S. Coast.
-9/11/2001- US attention away from China, towards Mid. East
-China issues divides US still today- I.e. Nixon Library recently became public; controversy over keeping statues of Mao and Chou En-lai(a Maoist leader).
What is US trade imbalance with china in 08/09/10? What are some contentious issues with China’s international trade?
-In Billions(08′:268;09′:227;10′:273)
-China investing in U.S. treasury bond
-Issues: Jobs lost in US, contamination of goods, pollution, CHINA invested in AFRICA but ignoring politics; working w/ Sudan regardless of violations in Darfur.
Comparing China and the World; Is China a developed country? What are the determinants?
-China has low fertility & mortality; based on demographic transition this indicates developed)
-China has high trade volume & Both GNI(citizens outside of border producing income for country) and GDP; With a HUGE double digit growth rate.
-China’s Quality of Life:
a)Good healthcare(Seen in H1N1 0 casualties)
b) BAD:education is hard to reach for rural communities; 5 tons of pollution per capita(US is 19); -INEQUALITY/POVERTY: 15.9 population earns under $1.25/day; Premier Wen Jiabao pledged to make effort to improve livelihood and equality.
Ancient China to ~2000 BC; glacial activity and geographic formation; people and development
-Pleistocene Ice age; Glacial advance and retreat increased river discharge and erosion which increase materials deposited @ mouth of river causing extension of shoreline as seen in North China Plain(Yellow/Huang River)
-Paleolithic hunter gatherers(8000B.C.) to Neolithic farmers(Shen Nung “god of agriculture”)(6000-3000 B.C.)
What were the pre-Imperial China dynasties?
-Xia(1994-1766BC;200+yrs): HUANG DI- Ultimate ancestor of all Chinese; very little records.
-Shang(1766-1122BC; 600yrs): Recorded dynasty, cities located w/ seats of authority.
Zhou(1122-221;1000 yrs): CLASSICAL AGE- 1st philosophers(Confucius, Mencius, Laozi), Capital was in Xian; Middle course of Yellow River
History of Imperial China: The dynasties
-Began QIN DYNASTY(221BC-207;20yrs): Famous for 1st emporer(QINSHIHUAN);united country w/ superior military, standardization of rules, measures, built canals link Yangtze w/ Xi river; Invested in linking sections of Great wall(not 1st); Burned books & killed intellectuals.
-Han Dynasty: Feudal land ownership system.

-Sui,Tang, Song Dynasties (581-1279AD): a)Center toward the south
b) Grand canal
c) Commerce and trade increased
d) literature
e) long period of peace/prosperity allowing art and literature to thrive.

-Rise and decline of dynasties: quality of leadership, extent of integration

What was the Treaty of Nanking? What effect did have on Chinese foreign policy? What happened to the coast? Classes?
1842- Opium Wars
-British trade to china mainly was Opium, very expensive commodity addicted to business leaders and rich because of how expensive it as. Weakened China’s leaders making China weak, and source of wealth for Britain.
-China tried to outlaw Opium, Britain declared war and easily won, Took Hong Kong.
-“Unequal Treaties”- Had to sign concession of territories and money away.
-TREATY PORTS- “Extraterritorial privileges”; many coastal cities along China had to grant right to foreigners; Shanghai & Tianjin; “Chinese and dogs cannot enter”.
-Interaction w/ foreigners forced upon Qing dynasty, FORCED OPENING OF CHINA; Treaty ports 1st cities influenced by west, LATER these cities were source of growth when trade increased to outside world.
-New class of Chinese entrepreneurs, businessmen.
What was Republic of China? When did it form? What were the 3 Principles?
-Formed Oct. 10, 1911
-Sun Yat-sun: “Livelihood, right, democracy”
-“Revolution of Xinhai” overthrowing of Qing Dynasty.
Nationalist party vs. Communist: When? Who they represented? Sino-Japanese War? WWII? Outcome?
Nationalist Party(KMT)vs Chinese community party(1921); both formed around same time.
-MAO ZEDONG(CHAIRMAN)
-Communist party gained power through: Rural areas, China big agricultural nation(vast majority of peasants); Nationalist party(KMT) built support in urban areas(minority)
-LONG MARCH(1934-35): CCP had to escape KMT by going inland was from coastal areas; very difficult, many died, but as they traveled they made presence all over and built support.
-Sino-Japanese war: China in very chaotic period, fought & lost war with Japan.”RAPE OF NANKING”(1937)300,000 Chinese killed in 6 weeks
-WWII Japan is defeated, leaves China allowing for power vacuum; Civil war between CCP & KMT.
Chinese Civil War and war-like beginning of PRC
-1945-49 Civil War between communist and nationalists
– 1949:KMT Loses and flees to Taiwan; officially begins Peoples Republic of China; China finally “Master of Own House”
-Promise of peace quickly gone- enter Korean war(supporting communism); creates US trade embargo everywhere except Hong Kong(Increased growth); -Sino-Soviet treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance w/ USSR.
China’s First Five-Year Plan
-1st Five-Year Plan= Collectization, STATE IS SOLE LAND OWNER; Established commune farms; 1st census(indicates stability and resources) of China (584 MILLION)
What was the “Hundred Flowers Movement”
“Anti-rightist Campaign”- labeled by Mao
-opposing opinions from Mao were persecuted, seen as dangerous “rightists”
-Mao set this up as trap to bring out movement and then persecute them.
What was the Great Leap Forward?
-1958-59
-“Backyard furnaces”
-Instead of farming, people told to make iron/steel in homes.
-FAILURE AND FAMINE: Agricultural cut way back leading to the starvation of 30 MILLION PEOPLE(5% of population)
What was the Cultural Revolution?
-Maoist push to oust enemies
-mobilize children to Beijing, no school, chanting and raising flags to Mao; Asked to persecute anyone w/ relations to Boureoisie mannerisms.
-WHOLE GENERATION OF KIDS DID NOT GO TO SCHOOL.
Who was Lin Biao
-attempted coup de tat on Mao, failed died in plane crash; Many others tried to take power form Mao making him PARANOID.
Why was the Nixon visit so important?
-1972 Nixon visits China
-Very important to US/China relations: “There is but ONE China(United) and Taiwan is part of it(Does not say PRC)”.
When does Mao Zedong die? What happens after death? Who takes power? 4 Modernizations?
-died in 1976
-succeeded by Hua Goufeng; couldn’t fill dominant role and quickly replaced. RETURN TO POWER OF DENG XIAOPING! (Economic Reforms)
-End of cultural revolution; radicalism
-“Gang of Four”: Mao’s family arrested and blamed for disasters of cultural revolution.
-4 modernizations:Agriculture, Industry, Defense, Science/Tech(Lacked development for 2 decades from revolutionary activity)
Tianamen Square Massacre; original cause, reason for demonstrations, outcome and perception from outside world
-1989 Hu Yaobang dies
-Respected leader of young people, when someone respected dies people go to Tianamen square to mourn
-Developed into demonstration, people began to see corruption/oppression after 10 years of opening to outside world.
-Lasted 1 Month
-Talks fail and govt sends soldiers/tanks to move people, open fire
-1000s die(Govt claims hundreds)
-BROADCAST THROUGHOUT WORLD- HUGE CHANGE IN PERCEPTION
-Perspective: Chinese govt still totalitarian
-PAved way to rise of IRON-FIST LEADers: JIANG ZEMIN(President), Li Peng
What was Deng’s “Southern TOur”
Goes to business people telling them economic reform will continue and to continue business as usual, giving confidence to outside investorys; HUGE RAISE IN GDP.
China in the 1990’s
-Deng’s southerm tour: GDP BOOST
-9th Five year plan: Acknowledges problem of inequality
-1st time a native Taiwanese was elected president as opposed to “Mainlanders”; spaked Taiwan strait criis.
-Deng dies; one main accomplishment was to return Hong Kong to China.
-Macao returns to China
-US bombs Belgrade embassy
Who is Liu Xiaobo?
-Chinese activist awarded Nobel Peace prize in 2010 while a political prisoner, upset china seen as threat to China
Two important officials: Mao & Deng; what were their two political ideologies?
-Mao(1949-76):
a)Egalitarian
b)self-reliance of China as seen through Great Leap Forward
c)pressed political supervision of all aspects of life, no free market
d) “Dark skin & Red Heart”-sent young people to country side to “Learn from peasants” because of their work ethics and loyalty; encouraged farming over college.

Deng(1978-1997)
a) performance/growth: “Doesn’t matter if cat is black or white as long as it catches mice”
b)open-door policy to outside world investment and trade.
c)autonomy reform in economic activities(“self-ruled”)

Explain the 3 phrases that describe China:
1) “Socialism w/ Chinese Character”
2) “Socialist Market economy”
3) “Primary stage of Socialism”
4)”Crossing the river by feeling/touching the stones”
1) Means china is still socialist, but compared to marxism which requires an industrial society, China being agrarian when they became socialists created their own form unlike soviets.
2) Deng Xiaoping, after the failure of the Great Leap Forward, was willing to consider capitalist methods of economic growth so as to revitalise China’s economy. However, in doing so, he remained committed to centralized control and the one-party state.
3)Similar to Socialist market economy; In current Chinese Communist thinking, the PRC is in the primary stage of socialism. Using the catch phrase “primary stage of socialism” allows for a redefinition of orthodox Marxist theory which enables the PRC to undertake whatever economic policies are needed to develop into an industrialized nation. It enabled the reform faction in China to demonstrate loyalty to orthodox Marxism, while introducing capitalistic measures into the centrally planned Chinese economy.
4)“Cross a river by feeling the stones” originally refers to the pragmatic policy of Deng Xiaoping, to move ahead with economic reforms slowly and pragmatically.
How are China’s goepolitics organized? What is the dual structure?
Nation which is broken down to 31 provincinal units and subdivisions within each unit.
-Dual structure: Party & State
What are the autonomous regions(6)? Cities under central administration(4)? Special administrative regions(2)?
-Autonomous(Border areas w/ large minorites): Inner Mongolia(Mongolians), Tibet(Tibetans), Ningzia(Hui), Zinjiang(Uyghurs), Guangxi(Zhang)
-Cities: Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing
-Special administrative regions: Hong Kong & Macao
Chinese physical geography: size, similarities to US in geography, effects of continental drift?Problems w/ agriculture?
-3rd largest after russia & canada
– Similar to US in: Size, latitude, access to Eastern coast(however China is landlocked on west)
-Continental drift: China sits on Eurasian plate, very active seismic area.
1) Pacific pushing from west
2)Indo Australian push upward from south
3) Eurasian Push down from north
-Himalayas and TIbetan Plateau signify tectonic uplift.

-China’s Geography described as “Gigantic Staircase” and Tibetan plateau as “Roof of the World”.
-Easten China: Alternating hills and plains crisscrossing; “The chinese checkerboard”
***Only 35% basins, low plateaus, plains; very small % and one reason why only 10% of Chinese territory is arable.

WHAT ARE THE 3 MAIN RIVERS OF CHINA? WHERE ARE THEY LOCATED?
-Yellow River(Huang He)
a)”China’s Sorrow”- flooded so many times over history, yellow due to large sediment load of loess from winds carrying fertile sediment from inner mongolian desert, load caused by flooding.
b) Dumps loess at mouth of river, cause of floods, densely populated areas.
c) Deforestation(extreme in china, no natural forests, all secondary) increases erosion and river load leading to more floods(MUST REPLACE TREES)
d) Mouth of Yellow River(SHENYANG) is beginning of Chinese civilization.

-Yangtze River(Chang Jiang)
a)longest/largest in discharge
b)3/4 of total precipitation flows through it.
c) Good for irrigation and access(transportation)
d)Three Gorges built on this river

-Xi River (Xi Jiang)
a) Larger discharge than yellow river
b) area of water surplus(Where as northern china is area of water deficit); Movement to divert water from southern water to northern through canals.
c) Pearl River Delta(Where Xi Jiang enter the Sea)

China’s weather/soil/veg: Temperature, precipitation, soil
Temp: cold in north, decreasing in south; Southern CHina is 24 degrees celsius, year long growing south.

Precipitation:
a)Decreases from SE to NW;
b)Monsoons: Seasonal reversal of wind direction; Winter is high pressure over central asia causing cold dry out-blowing winds but summer is low pressure over c.asia resulting in warm, moist in-blowing wind
c) Western China- continental climate; seasonal and daily extremes, arid.

Soil- Depends on vegetation, climate, rock type
a) W. China- Thin/poor soils(I.e. tibet, no forests only grasslands)
b) E. China- flood-prone region, rich alluvial soils deposited by rivers.

Population distribution of Chinese people
-West holds 60% of territory but only 6% of population.

-East has 40% territory with 94% of population; caused by history but also geography
a)landform
b)soils
c)vegetation
d)economic resources
e) Water

China’s environmental approach and attitude toward it; The two main points; Mao’s perspective; Deng’s perspective View of Western Environmental movement; Environmental degradation in light of economy(2 main factors); history; ideology and laws; Positive outlooks?
-China landscape- “Work in progress”

-Two main views:
a) A resource
b)A constraint- Only 10% arable, lots of mountains, nothing is easy.

-Mao: constant struggle to transform nature
a) “Bad Earth” book written about Mao’s period on chinese environment, THE IDEA OF CONQUERING ENVIRONMENT really aggrivated degradation during time, no soil protection/heavy deforestation.

-Deng’s era: Increase output at all costs

-Western Environmental movement:Mao- It is a western idea and does not suit china’s needs, it’s a “Spiritual pollution”.

-Environmental degradation a function of economic output: 2 main factors-
1)Population: more people=more impact on environment
2)Level of economic activity: process of making anything we are consuming could lead to environmental degradation.

-History: survival given 100+ yrs of humiliation & foreign domination leads to huge desire to survive and get rich; “Heavy pollution may kill you in a hundred days, but w/o enough heat and food you die in three.”
-Environment to serve people

-Environmental laws have low penalties, and not strictly enforced; GDP matters most; if afactory is proposed that will pollute a river but produce revenue it will pass.

-Positive outlook:
a) investment in new & cleaner technology, e.g. wind
b) recycle/reuse VERY OFTEN, don’t throw anything away.
c) require natural resources: Wood/dung for fuel

The three gorges Dam Project:
-Size, location, displacement
-rationale(4 reasons)
-Criticism
-Idea began in 1919 under Sun Yat-sen as flood control; Mao’s transforming the environment ideology and finally approved in 1992.
a) 1.3 miles long, 610ft high(water rises ~500ft)
b) reservoir is 400 miles long
c)1,200 miles upstream from Shanghai
d) 4000 villages, 140 towns, 12 cities & 100,000 acres of farmland innundated
e)1.1-1.2 resettlement

-Rationale(4 reasons):
1)flood control
2)electricity
3)navigation- w/ reservoir you can go further inland
4) Water conservancy- Yanghtzu river reservoir can accommodate S to N water relocation project

-CRITICISM:
a) Cause of flooding not addressed; deforestation upstream, fixing problem at end but not source.
b)displace people
c)loss of arable farm land
d)Reduction of flow- inability to flush load, pollutants become trapped
e)possiblity of failure- if fails would cause GREAT loss of life/property; China prone to earthquakes
f)Military attack- TARGET
g) Loss of cultural relics & archeological sites
h) Top-down approach

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