Crowded Coasts – Key Words

Geography
Abrasion
The grinding away of bedrock by fragments of rock and sand – like sandpaper
Attrition
The process by which waves cause rocks and pebbles to bang into each other, gradually making them smaller and smoother
Solution
Acids contained in sea water will dissolve some kinds of rock like chalk and limestone
Hydraulic action
Air may become trapped in joints and cracks on a cliff face. When a wave breaks, the trapped air is compressed which weakens the cliff and causes erosion
Suspension
Small particles are carried in water, e.g. silts and clays, which can make the water appear cloudy
Saltation
Load is bounced along the sea bed
Traction
Pebbles and larger sediment are rolled along the sea bed
Deposition
What happens when the swash is stronger than the backwash – when the sea loses energy it drops the sand, rock particles and pebbles it has been carrying
Swash
When the wave breaks and water is washed up the beach
Backwash
When water from a broken wave runs back down the beach
Constructive Wave
When the swash is stronger than the backwash, so the water moves more sand up than it brings back down
Destructive Wave
When the backwash is stronger than the swash, so the water brings down more sand than it brings up the beach
Fetch
How far the wave has travelled – the power of the wave
Wave
When wind blows over the surface of the sea causing friction, which produces a swell in the water which moves the wave forwards
Erosion
The gradual wearing away of rock and material found along the coast – the force of waves hitting it eventually causes it to break up and fall apart
Longshore Drift
The movement of material along a coast by waves which approach at an angle to the shore but recede directly away from it
Coastal Squeeze
Where a coastal settlemet is prevented from expanding, due to sea on one side and rural areas inland
Coastalisation
The movement of people to coastal areas
Corrosion
The breaking down of something slowly, especially by chemical action
Eustatic Change
A consistent change in the sea level that affects oceans throughout the world
Isostatic Change
Changes in the sea level relative to the land brought about by the build up or loss of ice on the land
Freeze-thaw
The weathering of rocks which occurs when water which is penetrating joints and cracks freezes and expands
Integrated Coastal Management
An approach which sees the coastal zone as the interactive and dynamic complex of subsystems – various parts of the coastal zone cannot be considered for isolation
Shorline Management Plans (SMPs)
Plans which deal with actual and potential coastal erosion and its relation to planned or existing development activities along the coast
Swell
A long series of ocean waves generally produced by wind and lasting after the wind has ceased
SMP – Do nothing
Where there is no investment in coastal defences or operations, so nothing is done one way or another
SMP – Managed Realignment
Allowing the shorline to move backwards and forwards with management to control or limit the movement
SMP – Hold the line
Maintaining or changing the standard of protection, in order to try and keep the coastline where it already is
SMP – Advance the line
Building new defences on the seaward side of the original defences

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