cultural geog

Geography
Cultural Region
Collective area with similar attributes. Ex: music appreciation; elvis memorabilia mapped out and then you can see that the Us is divided and the East has a lot more Elvis fans and the West doesn’t except for countries like pheonix where there are a lot of older people.
Cultural Diffustion
Movement of people ideas and objects from one place to another. Lots of variations: Rang system, contagious expansion diffusion, Relocation diffusion, hierarchical expansion diffusion.
Rang system
Long lots. French divided up the land perpindicular to natural resources so everyone gets equal share. Spanish decendents in New Mexico do this as well but no contact with French. This idea was not diffused- indpendent innovation.
contagious expansion diffusion
Core idea spreads out to neighboring communities.
sense of place
Where you come from affects your decisions and ideas about place.
Three areas of Geography
– Human and cultural – processes, landscapes
– Physical – how mountains built, rivers flow, etc biological processes
– Geosciences/ techniques- data gathering, statistics, cartography, remote sensing, geographic information systems GIS
There is Interaction b/w all of them
History of Geography
Geography came from Greeks- meant Earth writing was culturally biased, however; falsely believed that civilizations only came from mid-latitude regions. They believed there were only three types of regions: torrid – hot, frigid- cold and mid-latitude- which was the only inhabitable region (in their belief)

WW11 geographers being employed to figure out fighting strategies

50s a lot of these GIs go back to school and geography becomes popular and mapping becomes popular

Significance today
Then a lot of universities dropped their geography dropped their geography departments but now its becoming more popular GIS helps a lot to make things more efficient
– Globalization is a new concept
– Global warming is a factor that brought geography back into the limelight
– Geopolitics- population growth
Dualisms of Geography
Geography is an
-art and science
-Space and place
-Absolute location and relative
location
-Perception and reality
Five themes of Cultural geography
Five themes of human geography
– Culture region
– Cultural diffusion
– Cultural ecology
– Cultural interaction
– Cultural landscape
Relocation diffusion
Idea, object person relocates and skips over an area. Ex- France bringing long lots into Canada.
Hierarchical Expansion diffusion
Idea goes from principal places and filters down to less important areas. ex- (roundabout intersection) started in urban areas and came to smaller towns
Reverse hierarchical diffusion
Ex. Walmert went from small places to generally larger and larger places.
Other diffusion terms
Contagious- no regard for size of place
Neighborhood effect- small community or idea and grows. (small scale)

Stimulus- Particular general idea accepted- ex. livestock rearing

Time distance decay- The two things that slow effects of diffusion but is countered by globalization.

Absorbing barriers- stop diffusion. ex taliban regime denys western culture in the Middle East. absorbing barriers are rare especially because of globalization and usually found in Religion.

Permeable barriers- slow down ideas but don’t stop them. ex: idea of democracy.

Cultural Ecology
Looks at how people use their enviornment. Pueblo used their enviornment to build homes. They used a little bit of the trees but used other means because the trees were sparse. Use a lot of earth.
Political Ecology
How do those with power use the enviornment? ex. Wildlife refuge in Alaska vs. oil prices so the relationship b/w the refuge and government changes. Also the caspian sea vs lake determines who has right to oil in the sea and how it is split up.
Cultural interaction and landcape
politics, industry, economics and identity. ex the oil derrick in front of the government building in Oklahoma.
Site and situation
site – ex. Pittsburge- a places site is its physical location and its attributes. 2 rivers come together to make one, great coal resources in the south, iron to the north, Great lakes bring all resources together so all the cities near it became great steal resources.

situation- role or position within the region. ex Detroit took the steal from the surrounding cities and made car parts.

scale
At what level are you looking at: local, continental, global, etc…?
Central place theorgy
cities spaced out according to a particular science.
What is culture?
– The structure of feeling
– Productions of communicating or molding
– What is left out when economics, politics and society is taken out
2 pieces of culture
– material- more social
– symbolic- more the stuff of culture
Culture according to Mitchell
6 things:
1. opposite of nature
2. patterns and differences
3. processes of development
4. belonging/markers of – indicate membership/ indetifying
5. Display markers/ representation— landscape
6. Indicate hierarchy of these processes –power.
Legitimization theory
(social darwinism) A way of legitimizing power of society. Ex. phrenology. People claimed that where you lived determined how your culture was. So they believed people from africa were not as sophisticated and used phrenology as a resource but it was just to legitimize power esp. slavery.
enviornmental deteminism.
Carl Sauer
Felt enviornment didn’t determine how cultures were shaped but that there was interaction. Went against social darwinism. Wanted to take culture as a factor. Over time culture would mold the natural landscape (which was a medium).
Zelinsky looking at the US said three things
1. learned behavior
2. structured set of patterns and behavior (ways of acting)
3. totality / wholistic for a group of people.
superorganicism
(convergence and divergence)
Believed some higher power is guiding these cultures. (NOT a religious power). Zelinskys questions came from how can there be an American culture comprised of people from all over with all different beliefs but still had similarity of American culture. He believed that US culture was divergent for the first 150 years and thane it expands together and transportation brought convergence for a while and then divergent again. Certain people hold power and can guide American culture.
Enviornmental possibilsm
People rather than the enviornment have more control of how they shape culture. Related to natural enviornment but not controlled eviornment. The enviornment offers opportunities but also has limitations. The more technology the less the impact enviornment plays but petroleum is a resource that would counter this statment b/c petroleum is an important resource. Katrina taught us that nature still has a lot of impact and control.
Organic view
Native groups see people as a part of nature and believe the habitat posesses a soul.
Mechanist View
Western people have a mechanist view. Believe that people hold dominion over nature and can change nature to accomodate their needs. What nature does is logical and we can predict conditions and therefore we can come up with logical ways to modify it for our needs.
Cultural Determinism
Enviornment doesn’t play a role in anything people do. Choices are completely influenved by other cultural aspects and cultural interaction determines each other and the enviornment plays little or no role.
Climate
Weather/ atmospheric conditions over a long period of time. Climate says what we can expect and weather is what we get. Climate has 2 parts: temperature and percipitation. The most important factors are latitude and continentality when looking at temperature and percipitation.
Latitude
Plays an important role because of seasons (when certain latitudes are more directed to the sun). differential heating- high latitude for example will have 70 degree days and also -70 degree days. Mid latitude will still moderate throughout the year but not as extreme.
Continentality
How close a place is to a large body of water.
Techtonics
Landforms determined by where the plates moved and mountains are formed.
Fall line
From piedment to coastal plain. elevation changes where early settlers established water plants and there was the establishement of cities.
Global warming
– 9 of the warmest 14 years in past 140 have been since 1990.
– Expect 3-4 degree change this century. (only 9 degree change from last ice age to now)
– glacier national park: No glaciers by 2030.
– Columbia Glacier, AK retreated 8 miles in 16 years to 95% of 1990 levels by 2012.

Why global warming-CO2 conecetration acts as a blanket keeping re-radiated energy in the earths atmosphere.
– Ozone depletion. CFCs seperate into O2 + O. rendering layer innefective in blocking radiation.

Global warming is both ozone depletion and co2 conecentration combined. Greenhouse effect is only carbon dioxide.

Kyoto Protocol
Reduce greenhouse emmissions to 95% of 1990 levels by 2012. US is not a part of this but we are the biggest contributor.
Dams
Electricity, flood control, irrigation, human consumption/ use, recreation
– Tennessee Valley Authority
– Western dams: hoover (boulder)
– Army corps of engineers

Las vegas has huge consumption of water but only 3 inches of rain so dammed the Colorado river. Changed the face of the river b/c it was used for four cities.

Acid rain
Sulfer dioxide is byproduct of industry and finds its way into the atmosphere and bonds with moisture and fall back to earth.
Cultural landscape
-Visual evidence of culture as displayed on the earths surface.
-Composition of human made spaces on the land
-A process (just like culture) that must be reproduced
-Communicates, identifies, translates, symbolizes grows and breaks down
– Is an auto biography reflecting tastes, fears, values and aspirations
Culture and Power
Denis Cosgrove
– Landscape reflects power
– We all live in structured societies of some sort (hierarchy of culture)
– Landscapes of dominant culture
– Alternative landscape:
residual- survied time
emergent- futerist, utopian
display progress
excluded- ex: feminist
landscapes, workers etc.
Multiple meanings/ layers of landscape
– Can happen concurrently or over time
– Sequent occupance
layers over time
superimposition and modification with
new groups
– symbolism- more easily read in highly ordered places
comes from renaissance: linear
perspective
The American Scene
– Size is big
– Wildness- part of landscape /non urban areas
– Formlessness- ragged, never complete/ always in process
– Extremes- exaggerated and powerful
– Insiders and outsiders- percipitation ex oil derrick
– Ideal vs. reality
present sacrificed for future
present diminished by past
indivdual over aggregate
nearly neglected vs remote
spectacular
Formal Culture region
Areas that share one or momre cultural characteristics (ex language, politics, religion)
Border Zone
Transition zones b/w areas of cultural characteristics.
Core Periphery model
core, domain and sphere. core region is very small. Ex. mormans:
core- salt lake city
domain- utah
sphere- much larger and reaches other states.
Functional Culture Region
Organized to fulfill a particular political, social, or economic role. Often very rigid boarders
Vernacular Culture Region
— Perceived by locals and/or outsiders; also known as popular region.
— “Product of the spatial perception of average people”
— Identifying a region due to specific characteristics of the location
French
— Came to America for fur trade
— Oriented along Mississippi R. and Great Lakes Region
— Acadia: Annapolis, Nova Scotia. Established in **1607
— 1713 ; British take Nova Scotia and kick out French
–French resettle in New Orleans, “Cajuns” from “Cadia”
Spain
–Went to South West and Florida (came from mediteranian climate and didn’t like floridas so they went to mexico and eventually california)
– set up a series of institutions:
–Presidio, mission, civil community, land grants
–Presidio = forts ex. San Antonio
–Mission = 50 missions alone in New Mexico; ex. Alamo
–Civil Communities = towns; corners faced N, S, E, and W. ex. Santa Fe
–Colonized Florida in 1565 at St. Augustine; very unsuccessful
–**1763 : 7 years war—> Florida becomes British
— 1783: US wins Florida from British and give it to Spain
— 1819: Florida comes back to US w/ money
— 1601: Santa Fe becomes mission center
— Arizona: approximately 1000 Spanish there; had trouble with Apache Indians.
— California: Santa Fe Trade
— Hides and tallow trade– sends goods to Boston
— California becomes secularized
— **1821 Mexican Independence; trade and contact opened.
New England
–John Smith
–Bad farming, except in River Valleys (Connecticut River Valley)
–Harsh, long winters
–1607:Popham colony (Portland, Maine) Bad first year 1/2 died and they tried again 13 years later in Masschetusets.
–Wanted religious freedom from Church of England
–Wanted to be more conservative!!
–1630: Boston established and region booms from there
Colonial South
— Tidewater: VA/MD
— Baltimore; only colony with a Religious Tolerance Act
— Plantations; close to Chesapeake Bay –Tidewater: SC/GA
–Carolina Colony: plantation agriculture that eventually split
–prisoners sent to GA/ british wanted ga as a buffer zone
Zone of indifference
Ohio is a big part- lacks region affiliation. Zalinski points this out. Idea of name- mid east as term for this area.

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