cultural geography

Geography
Founder of LDS (Latter Day Saints) and Date
Joseph Smith (Jr.) 1830
LDS origins and Zion
– Moves to Kirtland, OH 1831
– Revelation of Mormon Zion on frontier in Independence, MO

– Problems:
– Independence, Missouri
– Acts of extermination, 1838
– Nauvoo, IL: 1838- 1841
– Polygamy starts and gets bad press, Smith killed in jail by mob.
– From coastal to very little water. Salt lake- evaporates so much that’s why there is a high % of salt.
– Joseph smith lived upstate NY- Great awakening going on (religious fervor) 1825 he has a vision and finds tablets (the book of Mormon) which was part of the bible. He was led by angels. Believed there was a group called laminates (lost tribe of Israel) and they believed American Indians were these lost tribes.
– Go from upstate NY to Ohio. Then revelation to go to Independence, MO but conflict w/ southerners living there. LDS wanted to be close to the Indians. They leave independence but still has Mormon temple there
– Joseph Smith is seen by followers as a prophet with his death there are several split off groups.

Elected leader of majority split off group after smith is killed
Brigham Young. – Elected leader of majority split off group after smith is killed
– Elects to leave the US for Mexico (W + S of Arkansas marker)
– Get to great basin “this is the place…” from mountain streams going into Great
Salt lake from nearby Wasatch range
-1849 petition US for their own state
Expansion: Deseret
– Expansion made easy from irrigation know- how
– Beehive made a symbol
– Honeybee (“deseret” in book of Mormon) symbol of industriousness
– Petition Us in 1849 for own state
– Boundaries
– Continental divide (E)
– Sierras (W)
– Gila River (S)
– Snake River (N)
– Salt lake center and endpoints
– Ft. Bridger, WY; San Bernandino, CA; lake tahoe, NV
– Worked population inwards
– St. George core in S. Utah= “dixie” longer growing season, important
Agriculture core
-Las Vegas settled
– Congress names territory after Utes (1850; no state status) very insulting to Mormons.
– Territory chipped away over time to what is now Utah
– Still grew and established themselves on periphery and grew inwards with population.
Contraction
– 1857-1858 “Utah War” Us sent troops to Utah to keep them from seceding the Union. Quarreling but nothing major.
– Brigham calls most Mormons in to salt lake city during “Utah war”
– Contiguous expansion and core-domain-periphery development
– Young dies in 1877
– Bold expansion north into ID
– 1883 Edmunds act: outlaws polygamy in territories (already illegal in the States)
– “Gentile” intrusions from Western industries of railroads and
Mining.
– Self-sufficiency
– Good model for living in dry west
– Irrigation
– Good soils from rivers
– Rain increases higher and to East in Wasatch Mountains
Mormon “impresses:
– Settle in villages (agricultural)
– Spacious grid- very large
– Wide streets- practical b/c started with horse and buggy
– I-style house from Midwest build up first and then to side
– Churches: Ward> stake centers> temples
– Ward- very simple community center; main temple- very ornate/ gothic
elements
– Beehive- even on cop cars and hwy signs
– Unpainted barns- be it is so dry they don’t need paint to stay longer
– Street naming
– Brick and stone houses
• What we know biologically about race
– Correlations can be made between human development and differentiations and world regions/ environments – Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloid
• Physical appearance varies independently, not in packaged sets. No consistent variations.
• Why do we care? Who does it benefit? – Race is a socially and politically constructed concept – White or Caucasian is easier than Czech- German- French
• Race by Characteristics
• Skin color= how many: 3, 4, 5• Fingerprints
– 1. Black Africans, most Europeans, and east Asians
– 2. Mongolians and Australian aborigines
– 3. Khoisan (Kalahari/ South African Natives) and some central Europeans
• Genetic distinctness (depends on genes studied):
– 1. Khoisans
– 2. Several for African Blacks
– 3. All the rest of the world would be one race.
• Biologist Charles White, 1779
– “negroes sweat much less and dogs not at all.. Whites are most removed from brute creation (and are) naturally superior.” – Thus the danger of environmental determinism. – Today: race has no scientific validity.
• Studying the oriental landscape
– Edward Said,Orientalism, “the other” – Kay Anderson’s study in Vancouver, B.C. can be applied particularly to San Francisco, CA (movements were related) – Ghetto: involuntary ethnic neighborhood. Group forced into part of town or city beyond their control – Ethnic neighborhood: Voluntary. These are urban areas that grow based on the choice of that group.
– • Chinese on West Coast
– Arrived in West for gold boom in CA and Canada
– Bust: went into lumber camps, railroads, mines, canneries
– Anglo Beliefs
– Chinese can subsist on lower wages
– Would pollute moral and physical environments
– Two views
– Chinese naturally unsanitary (but so were white working class areas)
– Public imagination of moral depravity: gambling and opium addiction
– Chines attempts to thwart image
– Protested pushing white prostitution into Chinatown by city of Vancouver lawas
– called for greater control of opium trafficking (which was controlled by whites)
How did the landscape transform?
1. Trade unions during union believed ethnic solidarity lead to class solidarity
2. Realization that exoticism was not as dangerous as economic opportunity from tourism
3. Dredged ancient and venerated symbolism
4. Result: build the landscape to give people what they wanted and over time has completely changed the meaning of Chinatown
– Importance: American landscapes (even ethnic ones) incorporate whiteness, not just reflect it.
– Original Spanish Americans
– Peoples
– Peninsulares- direct from Spain
– Creoles- born in New Spain. Ancestors spent some time in Mexico.
– Mestizos- mixed with natives (mostly pueblo Indians)
– Mulattos- Spaniards mixed with Africans.
– Spanish were not active on northern frontier. (essentially didn’t care) forts often not taken care of.
– 3 general areas: CA- Californos, TX-Tejanos, NM- Spanish Americans
(originally Hispanos)
– Through 1600s and 1700s did what they wanted.
– Anglo Encroachments- European settlers come into the west.
– TX: There wasn’t a whole lot of interaction until after Mexican independence 1821. Groups of Mexicans coming into Spain offered land to Europeans if they became Catholic but didn’t work. Empresarios bought hugh tracts of land and promised to become Catholic and brought friends and relatives and started to overwhelm/ dwarf Spanish population.
– CA: Limited contact until the gold rush. The small population of Spanish became completely overwhelmed very quickly by miners.
– NM: Lacked intrusions except Santa Fe Trail and this was never a permanent population for settlement. Spanish persisted after 1821.
-Important Events in the Transition
– 1819: Adams-Onis Treaty and line. Gave us florida. Meridian lines divided New Spain
– 1821: Mexican Independence
– 1845: Texas Annexed by US – texas was its own country for 9 years until US claimed it
– 1848: Mexican war and cession- End of Mexican war. Mexico finally agrees and US gains land
– 1910: Mexican Revolution- Political revolution within Mexico. Start of Mexicans celebrating their native heritage
– Distinctiveness of Spanish in northern New Mexico
– How
– First Effective settlement
– Independent Innovation- to identify themselves/ make use of the land they had several independent innovations.
– Evidence
– Archaic language forms: truje, facer (change in vowels, other names for objects etc… Mexicans might find it hard to understand).
– Surnames: Tafoya, Archuleta…. More reflective of older Spanish names; less common in Mexico and more common in Spain
– Folklore (santos)- many independently created or modified Spanish folklore and the Santos are carved wooden figures used as alter pieces. This was the only place in borderlands that made them.
– Penitentes Brotherhood- catholic men.
– Hornos- wood fire ovens used for wheat. 2 subregions of Hispano homeland: Rio Arriba and Rio Abajo.
– Villages (not ranchos or civil communities) more crop based instead of livestock based
– Long lots – independent innovation
– self reference – for the short time they considered themselves Mexicans but ended when anglos came and then refered to themselves as Spanish Americans. Chicano as a term is accepted more.
– Spanish built with logs more than anyone else in SW more access to forests in mountains.
– Patria chica village based society.
What is a homeland?
– Contexts:
– US security – Native American – Ethnic enclave/ island? like lindsborg – Ethnic substrate? scandinavian substrate (ex)
How do the mormons and hispanos qualify in your opinion and on what grounds-significant pop. M- Y H- N
– homogenous M- Y H- Y
– Association w/ area M- Y H- Y
– established pop. M- Y H- Y
– Functional region M- Y H-N
Nostrand and Estaville
– People (self sufficient that don’t want to network, weak individuality.)

– Place- association with area (size can range), can be functional but also goes beyond borders. can be overrun by mainstream society, however some exclusivity)

-Bonding with Place- KEY! Happens through adjustment to natural enviornment.

-Control of place- even go to war over place

-Time

Part of bonding with place is landmarks either natural or cultural. Language can also control place.

According to Conzen
• Identity
– Ethnogensis
– Indigenization
– Exclusivity
• Territoriality
– Control of Land
– Political Institutions
– Manageable Spatial Unit
• Loyalty
– Defense
– Compulsion to Live Within Homeland
– Nationalistic Landmarks
Basic concepts of Immigration processes, places, and spaces
– Basic concepts
-push and pull factors- reasons you leave a location or pulling you to a place
– chain migration- decision made by a primary group of people to move and same push and pull factors become evident for other people they know.
– Channelization- people from point a being channeled to point b
– Involuntary migration- forced migration. Other end of the ghetto- what forces the group to move to the ghetto. (refuges moving to another country)
– Return Migration- return back to source. Ex African Americans going back to the south.
– American examples
-Foreign born Americans
– Mexicans
-Zacatecas- over 50% of population is said to live in US not mexico
– Weedpatch, Ca- brought Okies in had an ad that read California cornicopia of the world with lots of room for immigrants.
– Shelbyville, TN- 1990 fewer than 100 spanish speakers and since then Tyson foods came and put in a food plant and now 14.5% is Spanish speakers.
– Labor and Mexico- 14.5 billion dollars going back to mexico from US (legal or illegal). Demand for jobs play a role in what’s going on.
– 1942-64: Mexican labor program- Allowed Mexicans to come in to the US legally to work b/c it fulfilled a wartime labor need.
– 1965- Mexico’s border industrialization program- Gave us Maquiladoras
– Maquiladoras- program to attract labor intensive manufacturing companies. Wanted to bring companies within eight miles of border. Would bring in equiptment and material w/o taxes. Then products exported. US only had to pay taxes on value added not entire product.
-1989 eased regulations on products being sold within the country
– Now maquiladoras are located everywhere not just within 8 miles from
border.
– currently there are 4000 maquiladoras
– Cubans in Miami
– Solidarity: multiple meanings
– Initial- group of people come in to a country and get help from others who have already made the move for their initial stay. They get services that enable an easy move.
– Bounded- an established group might help another group because of a
feeling of being bound together by a similar experience.
– Reactive- response to discrimination and isolation
– Political- solidarity is proven in voting booths. (ethnic block voting)
– 4 groups of immigrants: how have the solidarity on the ethnic landscape?
– golden exiles 1959-62
– Cuban refugee program
-“model minority”- wonderful reputation
– cubans still saw ethnic support
– they were same class/ educated middle class
– US offered help
– Cuban missle crisis ended this in 1962
– Camarioca boatlift and freedom flights: 1965-73
-deifferences with golden exiles
– organization
– bounded solidarity
– ethnic resources
– political solidarity
– Castro said if they had relatives they could pick them up to minimize risk of revolution. But bad weather so US helped out and flew 4000 people from cuba to US per month. In eight year period 260,000 cubans came into US.
– Little Havana boomed. 1970s poor economy in US but Cuban community could fill void in economic downturn. US invested in Latin America and filled bilingual jobs.
– Golden exiles came to US on their own not help in travel. Lacked shared experience in bounded solidarity. Still ethnic resources for support
– Ethnic Enclave economy- related to businesses.
– Political solidarity shifted.
– Relations went poor b/c of bay of pigs
– Newer immigrants were also anti castro but still wanted to return at some time to visit friends etc
– Community split b/w people that were not willing to go back and those that were
– Cuban immigrant groups
– Mariel boatlift: 1980
– Castro and Cuban “purification”- wanted to get rid of prisoners and mental health patients. Us wasn’t as willing to help. First stance was they wouldn’t help at all but then still offered some aid just not as much as previously. Solidarity started to lesson at this time.
– ethnic support- Cuban community didn’t want to give them aid b/c they were lower class, mostly men and prisoners
– Balsero crisis: 1994/5
– USSR collapse
– Clinton said Cubans would not be admitted into country anymore
– 4th group comes in and doesn’t help anything
– refugee status- no agreement b/w us and Cuba/ illegal departures
– Current policies- deport those that are captured at sea and admit those who make it to shore.
– Most current immigrants are highly educated
– Current solidarities- based on shared experience of being refugee not on Cuban. Not ethnic solidarity but refugee solidarity. Not a whole lot of solidarity anymore
– Ethnic enclave economy- still idea that is thriving in Miami. This works against assimilation.
Modeling Agricultural space
– Von-Thunen Model
– Isolated state with central market, equal access, and homogenous environment (climate is same, soil is same, vegetation is similar etc). Looks at things economically- what needs to be brought to market fastest.
-Closest to furthest from market:
– Truck farming/market gardening- (fresh produce grown close to urban city and taken directly into market sold within days. Low life span/perishable items). Closest to urban market.
– Dairying- milk/ highly perishable needs to be as close to market as possible esp. liquid milk
– Livestock fattening- hogs, cattle, chickens fed and raised
– Grain farming- wheat farming processed into flour, corn for human consumption etc. Requires more space.
– Livestock ranching
– Model helps us understand and organize the issues behind the real landscape that exists. Climate in US allows this model to be successful.
– It works!
– Megalopolis- the core
– Closely mirrors US outside California
Agricultural Regions- (Northeast)
Urban area
– Market gardening- rural areas of New England for Market gardening etc.
– Dairying- Needs cold temp and dry so milk production is higher in northeast
Usually takes place north of 120 day growing season line.
– Commercial fishing- very shallow banks in new England, they get cold current and a lot of plankton.
Agricultural Regions- (South)
– Livestock fattening
– Cattle
– Chickens- used to be everywhere but became more consolidated in the south.
– Market gardening
– Specialty crops- Florida and citrus crops/ Peanuts in Ga/ Apples in Virginia/ etc.
– Plantation Crops
– Cotton- moved west and now popular on the plains. When you only have on crop grown its called monoculture and this was going on for a while in the South until the boll weevil came and wiped out a lot of this production and forced farmers to look elsewhere for agriculture.
– Rice- Grown in Mississippi Delta
– Tobacco- started in Maryland/ Virginia area and moved into Kentucky and North Carolina. A lot more Hispanics are coming in for the agricultural labor.
Agricultural Regions- (Mid West)
– Agricultural hearth- ideal agricultural region
– Climate b/c of climate (growing season is perfect)
– Soil – glaciers brought more soil so more nutrients and fertile land
– Transportation- easy access to St. Lawrence river, Mississippi and Ohio river, grid roads, access, railroads are easy b/c its flat
– Farm size- Large land holdings allow for Midwest to be very productive.
– Grain farming- some wheat but a lot of corn
– Corn (hybrid)- corn particularly hybrid corn (genetically modified organism) selective agriculture which takes the best seeds one year to plant the next. Developed in the 1920s.
– Livestock fattening- Corn is grown for hogs and some cattle.
– Dairying- cool climate- better milk production
Agricultural Regions- (Plains)
– Grain Farming- crops that survive marginally better in dryer areas
– Wheat, Milo, Sorghum, Corn
– These crops don’t live on less precipitation but do better at different times of the year. And so can enable these crops to work on the plains.
– Livestock fattening
– Cattle
– Westward Movement of Meats Processing- taken out of the cities and thanks to transportation we can take the process out to the plains where the animals are already being raised and we can process them right there.
– Push for cotton- people are abandoning corn and although wheat is still there, slowly a real push for cotton is the trend.
Agricultural Regions- (Northwest)
– Dairying- cool climate
– Grain farming- Western Washington similar to plains b/c rainshadow of cascades.
– Palouse Wheat
– Hops
– Market Gardening- specialty fruits and vegetables
– Apples- Washington one company handles entire production of apples (vertical integration)
– Vertical Integration- ex. Cheese from California localized production from head to toe
– Grapes- napa valley wines
– California:
– 1st or 2nd in everything b/c a lot of land and lot is agricultural. They take a lot of water from Colorado river.
Land Division Patterns
• Survey- section lines from rectangular survey. very efficient, easy to write, very organized but awful in the mountains b/c very rugged topographic area.

• Metes and Bounds- uses natural features- trees, boulders, rivers, etc

• Long Lots- irrigate water

Rectangular survey
most of the country has this (not original 13 states or texas though)

• Township and Range
System
– 1785 Land Ordnance
• Principal Meridian
• Baseline
• Township(s) Lines
• Range Lines
– 36 Sections
– 640 Acres

What are the Great Plains?
• Walter Prescott
Webb (1931)
• Semiarid
• Treeless
• Flat
• All Attributes had to
be adapted to for
successful living
(particularly
agriculture)
• Cultural Fault Line

– Very few cities
-agriculture is way of life
– family oriented culture

Locating the Great Plains
– East of Rocky Mountain ranges
– Canada to Texas
– Eastern line: 5 options
– 20 inch isohyet- rain line typically 20 inch of minimum moisture for some crops
– 100th meridian
– 98 Meridian- more specific considers not only environmental issues but cultural evidence for change we see
– Bounded by Rivers:
– Red (North)
– Pecos Rivers
– Physical escarpments: sudden change in elevation
– Balcones (TX)
– Missouri river in Dakotas
Adaptations to Semiaridity
– Drill for ground water- drill wells a lot deeper than in the East, windmills that draw water up
– Ogallala Aquifer- resource that is running out quickly. Being drawn 22X its recharge rate/ by 2019 this resource will be gone.
– Dry farming- general method of farming
– Selective crops (drought tolerant or matures in winter: e.g. winter wheat)
– Rotate and Leave Fallow- move from one field to another and occasionally leave a farm fallow (don’t farm for a year)
– Widely spaced rows
– Plow before rain and cover afterwards- doesn’t take place anymore
– Cloud Seeding – old process where ranchers and farmers attempt to make clouds in the sky hoping it would eventually rain. Didn’t work
Adaptations to Treelessness
– Sod houses
– Barbed wire fencing- very important innovation
– Bonanza farming- trend where one individual would own a lot of land
Take advantage of Flatness
– Machinery: large 200 cattle before engines, very large equipment b/c the flat land allows conquering space very easily.
– Railroads: “great space conqueror- planned a town every 7 miles but this ended up being too much.
– Center- Pivot irrigation – bringing up ground water and dispersing it. Can’t do in a hilly area. Large sprinkler systems connected to engine that pulls water out of aquifer and forces the arm to rotate around.
Other adaptations to environment
– Absentee ownership- ex. Ted Turner owns a lot of land
– Sidewalk farming- Operate on lands themselves but live in town not on land itself.
– Suitcase farming- they may go out once or twice a year but the land is being operated by people in the area – (Ted turner)
– Basement Homes- structure is built in the ground- great insulator.
Exceptions to the Plains
– Black Hills, SD- dome that was lifted up and didn’t break open for magma to spill out but rock cracked a little bit and with erosion we expose granite rock underneath. (Mount Rushmore)
– Nebraska Sand Hills- least bit of an exception very sandy to the point that you can’t do anything. No farming just ranching. The aquifer is a lot better here. There is a forest consisting of lodge pole pines planted by a professor.
– Flint hills of KS- ancient mountain range underneath flint hills. Layer of flint is in the limestone and won’t erode away.
– Texas hill country- several granite rock outcroppings always been rustic place to own homes and little ranches. A lot of sheep. Mix of Germans and British
Formal Electoral Regions
-Republican vs. Democrat: by State
-Cartogram- kind of shaped like a map. Most states in relative position- the size of state is by how many electoral votes.
– What can we conclude? NE in general and West coast and Northern Midwest show democrat- electoral college votes.

-Republican vs. Democrat: by County
– Much more detailed view of how the states vote. Stronger conclusion about issues that affect how population votes.
– the patterns that we saw don’t come out as strong. The main key pattern shows urban areas vs. rural areas. Urban areas now are mostly Democrat and rural Republican. Urban areas have a lot more population.
– Colorado group pocket of Democrats b/c very environmentally conscious
– College towns show up more Democrat
– Intense labor areas – more democrat as well. Cotton areas, mining regions

Political subcultures
– Individualistic
– Government as marketplace- govt. should be run like a business, efficient, work for everyone. Strictly utilitarian. Individual comes first not the entire community. Product of the middle states- complexity of culture in middle states so a lot of compromise- not tight nit communities but rather more individual. There is western Migration towards California.

– Moralistic
– Government as commonwealth- Want to do something positive for community, Puritans from New England also carried towards the West. Utah- is an island from the heritage of Mormons

– Traditionalistic
– Limited government- Those involved in Government are elite. Comes from old political structure of deep-south. Also brought into south from Hispanics. Ambivalent towards market place idea- traditionalistic views govt. as an actor with positive role but with a very limited sphere. Carrying on past ways of life with little adjustment.

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