Cultural Geography

Geography
overpopulation
the relationship between the number of people on earth and the availability of resources
why does development vary among regions
because of economic indicators
what is the HDI ?
THE HUMAN DEVLOPMENT INDEX created by the UN and recognizes that a country’s level of development is a function of 3 factors
What are the 3 development factors?
a decent standard of living (economic) access to knowledge (education), and a long and healthy life (demographic factors)
Countries with high HDI
Russia, japan, australia, new zealand, and south korea
why is the study of population important
more ppl alive today than at any other time in history, world’s pop increased at a faster rate during 2nd half of the twentieth century than ever b4, virtually all pop growth occurs in less developed countries
cartogram
map that shows population concentration of certain area
2 thirds of world’s pop
east asia, south asia, europe, and south east asia
countries in east asia, south asia, europe, and south east asia?
china, india, monocco, and indonesia
which country has the highest HDI among the LDCs?
Latin America
LDC countries
southwest asia, central asia, sub saharan africa
where do 1/4 of the world’s ppl live?
East Asia
where is the largest population concentration in the western hemisphere?
northeastern us and south eastern canada
What percent of americans are farmers?
2 %
ecumene
the portion of the earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
where do most ppl in europe live?
cities
what is the world’s largest country in land area?
russia
what is the world’s most populous country?
china
what is the most populous country in africa?
nigeria. half of the west africa concentration is found here
people generally avoid which kind of areas?
dry, wet, cold, and high lands
countries that have high altitudes
mexico city, and lima, peru
most people in south asia are
farmers living in rural areas
which continent forms the 3rd world’s largest pop. cluster
europe
countries in south east asia
java, sumatra, papa new guinea, phillipines
arithmetic density
measures the # of ppl per area of land. usually square kilometers or square miles
physiological density
a rough measure of a country’s food security
agricultural density
a measure of development as machines are used in more developed countries
natural increase rate
the percentage by which a population grows in a year
crude birth rate
the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 ppl alive in the society
crude death rate
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 ppl alive in the society
doubling time
the number of years needed to double a pop
fertility
total fertility rate (TFR)measures the number of births in a society
IFR Infant Mortality Rate
the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age compared with total live births
life expectancy
measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
population pyramids
a bar graph showing a place’s age and sex composition
what determines the shape of a population pyramid
crude birth rate but also includes age distribution and sex distribution
demographic transition
the process of change of a country’s population structure
the five stages of demographic transition
stage 1: (very high CBR, CDR, low NIR)no countries in this stage.
stage 2: still high CBR and NIR, decline in CDR. industrial revolution occurs
stage 3: moderate growth (drop in fertility brings down birth rate and NIR)because women have family planning and are educated. ie chile
stage 4:low growth (negative or zero pop growth) more developed ie denmark or US
stage 5: decline in growth ie japan. Might be a problem
Why does population decline in more devoloped countries?
mothers have less children
Thomas Malthus
wrote “an essay on the principle of Population”. population grows geometrically while food supply grows arithmetically. He predicted over population before the industrial revolution
what are some criticism of malthus
pessimistic viewpoint. failure to consider technological innovation
Some reasons why population change in future?
declining birth rates, reliance on economic development, distribution of contraceptives.
epidemiological transition
the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of ppl
stages of epidemiological transition
stage 1:pestilence and famine (high CDR)ie the black plague in 1348.
stage 2: receding pandemics (cholera and dr. jon snow, birth of GIS.
Stage 3: degenerative diseases ie heart disease and cancer
Stage 4: delayed degenerative diseases. medical advances prolong life
stage 5: possible reemergence of infectuous diseasespossible reasons are evolution, poverty, and improved travel.

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