Digimap exam 1

Geography
Spatial file types
KML, GEOJSON, SHP 
Zip

Archived or compressed; need to un-archive before you use it

SHP
Shape file, minimum of 4 files which constitute a single interpretable data set for the computer 
CSV

Comma Separated Value

GeoJSon

Open standard format for encoding collections of simple geographical features along with non-spatial attributes using JavaScript Object Notation. Written and maintained by working group of developers.

KML (Keyhole Markup Language)

File format used to display geographic data in an Earth browser. (Google Earth, Google Maps)

 

Foursquare
Local search and discovery service mobile app which shows the best places to eat, drink, entertain and enjoy in the city’ boundaries based off of people’s reviews and ratings.
factfinder 2
Census Bureau’s online, self-service tool designed to search a variety of population, economic, geographic, and housing information
Google Earth

Installed on your desktop and has more user-control

Google maps
Cloud-Based, accessed through web-interface or app on your phone
arcmap
Basic platform for ARCGIS.com, what we used for M4
arcgis.com
Arcs move into the online mapping world. Industry standard GIS platform, very expensive and powerful. Within it are programs which includes ArcMap
geocommons
Enables anyone to find, use, and share geographic data and maps. Creates rich interactive visualizations to solve problems without any experience using traditional mapping tools.
FOSS
Free and open software accessible to everyone
API
Application Programming Interface, interfaces to the data screens created by web applications
map
graphic representations that facilitate a special understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events.
Mapmaking
the producing of maps that representing different things
Mapping
a cognitive function that orders the world
cartography
the study of mapmaking
geography
the study of the spatiality of physical and human processes
space
a concept of tension between two notions: space as a pre-existent and spaces as made/produced
GIS
Geographic information systems – allows you to map larger quantities of fata within a single database according to their location
visual hierarchy
prioritizing subjects on top of one another; darker black box has the highest contrast so it should be designed around 1st.
figure ground relationship
perceptual grouping which identifies figures from the background. (Hourglass/faces). Allows mappers in 2d pieces.
visible variables
the building blocks for map symbols (size, shape, color, pattern, orientation
color
hue, value, saturation
hue
main property of color, pure colors without tint or shade; degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are red, green, blue, purple, yellow, and orange
value
lightness or darkness of tones or colors. White is the lightest value and black is the darkest value. (different shades of red- crimson, bright, red-orange)
intensity
How bright or dull a color is. Brightest intensity would be the pure color from the color wheel and dullest would be where you cant even discern the color other than it looks grey.
thematic maps
maps which focuses attention to a specific theme
choropleth maps
maps where area is the symbol
flow maps
maps with the dynamism of flow between places (Radial, Network, Distributive)
cartograms
maps with values by proportional area
propaganda maps
Maps with opinion with explicit intent
maps as biography
Made by Harley, maps as a biography. Just like D&E exercise. Own personal biography, maps itself as a material object having a biography (distribution of the physical object), mapmakers have a biography, and biography of the geography it represents
user generated content
bigger than geo-web data. Any mapping content that is created by a user
maps 2.0
As maps migrate onto the web, they are no longer the exclusivity of the cartographer
map mash up
web-based data and web-based map (map hacking, maps 2.0)
map hacking
Using Google Maps on individual web sites – fast and easy way to add geographic information to personal web sites.
map communication model (mcm)
mapping is a process of transmitting geographic information via the map from the cartographer to the end-user.
map scale
ratio on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground.
geodesy
measurement and representation of the size and shape the Earth and the location of the points on its surface
geoid
The shape the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of the Earth’s gravitation and rotation alone, in the absence of winds and tides.
ellipsoid
geometrical 3-D shape
graticule
grid you use to locate objects
map coordinates
enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers and letters to represent vertical and horizontal position.
latitude
East-west; parallel to the equator on a map
utm
Allows you to pick a zone of a country and will represent special information to that region. Allows you to target specific area in Mercator maps
latitude
North/South – perpendicular to the Equator
longitude
East-west; parallel to the equator on a map
state plane
set of 124 geographic or coordinate systems designed for specific regions in the United States. Each state contains one or more state plane zones, the boundaries of which usually follow country lines. Based on transverse Mercator or Lambert conic.
map generalization
selecting general things from an area and making it into an map (Just selecting the Armory, Whitehall, POT to map)
crowdsourcing
Knowledge resides with the individual citizens, who are experts of their own local environment
digital divide
The gap between demographics and regions that have access to modern information and communications technology and those that don’t or have restricted access.
US census
Maps exploring different demographic, geographic segmentation data
metadata
data about data
gall
Gall Projection is the same as Peters but ~ 100 years sooner.
peters
Peters projection challenges the traditional Mercator projection
mercator
Dominant map projection, used in all web-based projections
robinson
Created the Map Communication Model, communicative, functionalistic
bertin
Focused on mapping processes
rademacher
San Francisco map, uses Craigslist data and produced the 1st “mapping mashup”
harley
Critical cartography/critical mapping; understanding the way in which cartographic knowledge is always connected to power. “Maps as a Biography”

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