Europe, East Asia, and Southeast Asia

Spatial Interaction: Complementarity
*One place has a supply and another a demand. EX: Chilean produce to North American/European markets.
Spatial Interaction: Transferability
*An expression of mobility of a commodity. Based upon: 1. Characteristics and value of a product. 2. Distance over which it must be moved. 3. Ability of the commodity to bear costs of the movement.
Spatial Interaction: Intervening Opportunity
*Serves to reduce supply/demand interactions that might develop between distant complimentary areas. EX: Using Ft. Collins airport instead of DEN for travel. And attending UNC instead of North Florida.
The feeling of loyalty and attachment to ones nation or nation-state, and strong support for it’s interests.
Underlying Forces: Centrifugal forces
*Refer to forces that tend to divide a country. -Religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.
Underlying Forces: Centripetal Forces
*Forces that unite and BIND a country together. -A strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith.
*To break up(as in a region) into smaller and often hostile units. Originates from mountain range in Bulgaria.
Shatter Belt
Term applied to Eastern Europe by geographers to describe a zone of chronic political splintering and fracturing.
*Process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
*A venture involving THREE OR MORE STATES. *Political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
China’s Relative Location
*Natural protective barriers -large, tall mountain ranges to the west. Jungle covered mountains to the south. Deserts to the west and north. *Distance. *Inward Looking (central kingdom) with minor incidences of cultural diffusion. *Effects of one ocean -major role in economic transformation of coastal China.
Chinese Perspectives
*One of the worlds great culture hearths. *Continuous civilization for over 4,000 years. *Center of the civilized world. *Eastern vs. Western bias. *Closed society.
China’s political regions: Central-Government administered municipalities (4)
*Beijing(Capital), Tianjin(Port City), Shanghai(largest city), and Chong Qing(International River Port)
China’s Political Regions: Autonomous Regions (5)
*Nei Mongol(Inner Mongolia), Ningxia Hui, Xinjang Uygur(Chinese Turkestan), Guangxo Zhuang(South), and Xizang(Tibet).
China’s Political Regions: Provinces (22)
*Grow in size from East to West. *Special administrative Regions: 2
China’s One Child Policy
*Implemented in 1979. *Cultural preference for male children. *Severe gender imbalance. -116 males born for every 100 females.*Policy has disrupted natural pop. growth.
China’s Special Economic Zones (SEZ)
*7 SEZ’s established; 3 in Guangdong Province. *Investment incentives:low taxes, import/export regulations eased, land leases simplified, etc.
China’s Economic Initiatives: Open Cities
*First four coastal cities, increased to 15 cities. *National investment focused on Shanghai.
China’s Economic Initiatives: Open Coastal Areas
*Also designed to attract foreign
Three Special Economic Zones in China
1. China Proper – eastern half; the core. 2. Xizang(Tibet) – tall mountains and high plateaus; sparsely populated. 3. Xinjiang – vast desert basin.
Japanese History: Meiji Restoration
*1868 Rebellion brought in reformers. *Reinstated the emperor and began to transform Japan from a Feudal society with pre-machine age technology to an industrial power. *Adopted aspects of the British Model. *Focus was on industrialization and education system.
Japan’s Post WWII Transformation
*1945-1952: Allied Occupation. – Economic reshaping, labor legislation, constitution, civil rights,land reform, U.S. ‘Helping Hand’ policy.
North and South Korea Contrasts
NORTH KOREA: Antiquated state enterprises. Inefficient, non-productive agriculture. Limited trade-former Soviet Union and China. Nuclear Power-‘axis of evil’. Regional threat.
SOUTH KOREA: Modern factories, Intensive, increasingly mechanized agriculture. Extensive Trade- US, Japan, and Western Europe.
Very Mountainous. Strong and diverse economy. Free market democracy. A Chinese province for centuries. Colonized by Japan in 1895. Returned to China > WWII. 1949 – Chinese Nationalists(supported by the US) fled from the mainland and established the Republic of China (ROC).
South East Asia: Major Geographic Qualities
A Fragmented realm of numerous island countries and peninsulas. Physiography dominated by high releif, tectonic activity, and tropical climates. Exhibits characteristics of a Shatter Belt.
South East Asia – Physical Geography
*Mountainous-volcanoes. *Large River Systems-Mekong and Irrawaddy. *Natural Disasters-Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and Typhoons.
Political Geography: Compact State
*A state that possesses a circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the center to ant point on the boundary exhibits little variation. Very easy to govern. EX: CAMBODIA
Political Geography: Elongated State
A State whose territory is decidedly long and narrow; it’s length is at least 6 times greater than its average width. EX: Vietnam and Laos
Political Geography: Protruded State
A type of territorial shape that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the territory. EX: Thailand and Myanmar.
Political Geography: Fragmented State
A state whose territory consists of several separated parts, not a contiguous whole. The individual parts may be isolated from each other by the land area of other states or by international waters. EX: Philippines and Malaysia.

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