Europe & Russia

Geography
Europe: “Peninsula of Peninsulas”
Iberian Peninsula(Spain & Portugal) Scandinavian Peninsula (Norway & Sweden) Balkan Peninsula (Greece)
Europe Land:
Plains
North European Lowland
Europe Land:
Mountains
Alps
Pyrenees
Carpathian
Europe Land:
Major Rivers
Thames (UK)
Rhine
Danube
Rhone
Po
Dnieper (Dnipro)
Europe Climate:
Mild Mid-Latitude
(Western & Southern Europe)
Moderated my North Atlantic Drift (current)-winters are warm for latitude
Europe Climate:
Severe Mid-Latitude
“Snowy Winters”
Central and northern Scandinavia, Findland, Central & Eastern Europe
Europe Bio-geography:
Boreal Forest
(Coniferous forests dominated by Spruce, Fir, & Pine)
Scandinavian Peninsula, Eastern & Northeastern Europe
Europe Bio-geography:
Broadleaf Deciduous Forests
British Isles & Western Europe
Europe: What is Maquis?
Short, gnarled, broadleaf, evergreen vegetation near Mediterranean Sea
Europe Natural Hazards:
Earthquakes
Balkan Peninsula & Italy
Europe Natural Hazards:
Volcanoes
Italy, Iceland & Mediterranean Sea
Europe Natural Hazards:
Tsunamis
Iberian Peninsula, Italy, & Balkan Peninsula
Europe Cultural Religion:
Roman Catholic
Southern & Central Europe
(Iceland, Iberian Peninsula, France, Italy, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Slovenia, & Croatia)
Europe Cultural Religion:
Protestant
Northern Europe
(Britain, Scandinavian Peninsula, & Germany)
Europe Cultural Religion:
Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Europe
(Greece, Serbia, Ukraine, Belarus, & Romania)
Europe Cultural Religion:
Islamic Minority
North African Arabs live in France
Turks live in Germany
Europe Cultural Ethnicity:
Basic
Generally defined by nationality or region
Hungary- Magyar (90%)
Europe Cultural Language:
Germanic
Northern Europe
(Scandinavian Peninsula, Germany, & UK)
Europe Cultural Language:
Romance
Southern Europe
(Iberian Peninsula, France, Italy, & Romania)
Europe Cultural Language:
Slavic
Central & Eastern Europe
(Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belarus, & Ukraine)
Europe Cultural Language:
Baltic
(Balto-Slavic)
Lithuania & Latvia
Europe Cultural Language:
Uralian
(Uralic)
Findland, Estonia, & Hungary
Europe Cultural Language:
etc.
Greek (Hellenic)
Albanian- Albania
Basque
Europe Political:
Basic
39 Countries
nation-states
Europe Political Conflicts:
Northern Ireland
Cultural & Political
British Protestants & Irish Catholics struggling for political control of Northern Ireland. Power sharing Government proposed in 1998- “Good Friday Peace Accord”
Europe Political Conflicts:
France
Cultural & Economic
Ethnic riots due to racial discrimination & unemployment
Europe Political Conflicts:
Terrorism
“The Secret Organization of Al-Qaeda in Europe”
Claims responsibility for bombings in central London (July 7, 2005)
Europe Political Conflicts:
Former Yugoslavia
Cultural & Political
(Croatia, Bosnia, & Kosovo in Serbia)
Europe Political Potential Conflicts:
U.K.
Cultural & Political
(England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland)
Europe Political Potential Conflicts:
Belgium
Cultural & political
(Flemish in North {Flanders} & Walloons in South {Wallonia})
Europe Political Potential Conflicts:
Spain
Cultural & Political
(Basques & Catalonia)
Europe Political Potential Conflicts:
France
Cultural & Political
(Corsica)
Europe Political Potential Conflicts:
Italy
Political
(Sardinia)
Europe Political Potential Conflicts:
“Ancona Line”
Cultural & Economic
(Northern & Southern Italy)
Europe Political Potential Conflicts:
Devolution of Serbia
Cultural & Political
(Break-away movement in Albanian-dominated Kosovo)
Europe Political History of Border Changes:
Relict Boundaries (Borders)
“Iron Curtain”- Capitalist western Europe & Communist eastern Europe
Germany- East & West
U.K.- England & Scotland
Europe Political:
Maastricht Treaty or Treaty on European Union
(1992)
Created European Union (EU) and led to the creation of the Euro
Europe Political:
Schengen Agreement
(1995)
Eliminates most intracontinental immigration controls & lets a citizen of any member country (EU) travel, live, and study in most of western Europe w/o a passport or visa
Europe Political & Military Alliances
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Org.)
UN (United Nations)
Europe Economic:
Basic
Free Market Economies
GDP per capita-$25,000
Unemployment- 10%
Europe Economic:
Major Industrial Centers
Midlands (central Britain)
Ruhr (Western Germany)
Saar (Southwestern Germany)
Saxony (Eastern Germany)
North Italy (Po River Valley)
Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Silesia (Southern Poland)
DONBAS (Donetsk Basin)- Ukraine
Europe Economic:
Alliances
EU (European Union)
Euro-common currency
Europe
Urban
71% Urban
Southern & Eastern Europe is less urbanized than Northern & Western Europe
Megacities
Primate Cities
Green Belts
CBD (Central Business District)
Compact
Europe Historical:
100 B.C.- 500 A.D.
Roman Empire
Europe Historical:
1800
Agricultural Revolution
Europe Historical:
1850
Industrial Revolution
Europe Historical:
1914-18
World War I
Europe Historical:
1939-45
World War II
Europe Historical:
1944
Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg- first economic alliance)
Europe Historical:
1957
Treaty of Rome (European Economic Community)
Europe Historical:
1967
EC (European Community)
Europe Historical:
1991
Devolution of Yugoslavia
(Slovenia, Croatia, & Macedonia declare independence)
Europe Historical:
1992
Maastricht Treaty or Treaty on European Union (EU)- created European Union and led to the creation of the Euro
Europe Historical:
1992-95
Civil War in Bosnia
Europe Historical:
1995
Schengen Agreement-
passage between EU countries without passports and other border restrictions
Europe Historical:
1999
1)Introduction of the Euro
2)Conflict in Kosovo- NATO aerial bombing of Serbian Army in Kosovo
Europe Historical:
2006
Montenegro becomes independent state (country)
Joint union between Serbia & Montenegro is peacefully dissolved
Europe Historical:
2007
Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as Reform Treaty) amends the Maastricht Treaty or Treaty on European Union (EU)
Europe Population
600 Million: Major global population cluster
Infant Mortality Rate: 6
Life Expectancy: 75
Fertility Rate: 2
Russia Land:
North European Lowland (Plain)
Western Siberian Lowland (Plain)
Siberia
Russia Land:
Mountains
Ural
Caucasus
Russia Land:
Major Rivers
Volga (most important river in Russia)
Ob
Yenisey
Lena
Amur
Russia Climate:
North Atlantic Drift (current)- Western Russia
Cold winters, cool-to-warm summers
Mountains block influence from pacific & Indian Oceans
Russia Bio-geography:
Boreal Forest
Boreal Forest of Siberia is dominated by Larch: a deciduous conifer
Russia Natural Hazards:
Cold
Earthquakes (Caucasus Mountains)
Russia Cultural:
Religion
Christianity: 60% (Russian Orthodox: 53%)
Russia Cultural:
Ethnicity
Russian: 80%
Others: Chechens, Tatars, Yakuts, Ossetians, Buryats
Russia Cultural:
Language
Russian
Russia Cultural:
Crime rates
High crime rates in large cities
Russia Political:
Russian Federation
21 Republics
(Largest state in the world: 10 time zones)
Russia Political:
“Federal Assembly”
Elected 2 House Parliament:
Duma- 450 seats
Council of the Federation- 178 seats
Russia Political:
President
President elected and appoints Prime Minister
(Government corruption is rampant)
Russia Political:
“Near Abroad”
14 Former SSRs of the USSR
(SSR=Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR=Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Russia Political Conflicts:
Georgia
Russia invades Georgia and declares South Ossetia & Abkhazia as independent countries (2008)
Russia Political Conflicts:
Chechnya
Chechens have attempted to break-away from Russia and form an independent country named “Republic of Ichkeriya”
Religion: Islam(Sunni), Ethnicity: Caucasians, Language: Chechen
Russia Political Potential Conflicts:
Tatar Republic (Tatarstan)
Religion: Islam
Ethnicity: Mongols
Language: Turkic
(Caucasus Republics)
Russia Political Potential Conflicts:
Maritime (Primorye) Republic
Regionalization due to distance and isolation
(Caucasus Republics)
Russia Political:
Reasons for Devolutionary Forces
Size: the country’s vastness
Isolation: “regionalization”
Many ethnic clusters
Russia Political Major Issues USA & Russia:
ABM Treaty & Missile Defense System
1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (USA withdrew from ABM Treaty in June 2002)
USA seeks missile defense system in eastern Europe
Russia Political Major Issues- USA & Russia:
Nuclear Arsenal
New START Nuclear Arms-control Treaty (2010)
Named for Strategic Arms Reduction treaties of the 1990’s
No more than 1550 long-range nuclear warheads
No more than 800 Submarines, Missiles, & Bombers with nuclear warheads
Russia Political & Military Alliances
UN
NATO: Russia Council (Russia is a consulting member of NATO, not a voting member)
Russia Economic:
Basic
Transition from communist/planned economy to capitalist/free economy.
Industrial sector is old & uncompetitive.
Rich Natural Resources (oil & natural gas): 2nd leading oil exporter in the world.
Per Capita GNP: $15,000.
Unemployment: 10%
Russia Economic:
Major Industrial Centers
Central Industrial Region- Moscow
Volga Region
Urals Region
Kuzbas Region (Kuznetsk Basin)
Baykaliya
Far East Region
Russia Economic Alliances:
CIS: Commonwealth if Independent States
(Russia & 14 former SSRs)
Russia Urban:
75% urban
Megacities
Compact
Small CBD (central business district)
No Suburbanizaion
Russia Urban:
Major Cities
Moscow: 10 million
St. Petersburg: 5 million
Russia Historical:
1550
Ivan Grozny (Ivan IV or Ivan the Terrible) 1st Czar
Russia Historical:
1700
Peter the Great (Peter I):
Founder of modern Russia
Built St. Petersburg
Initiated Russian Empire
Russia Historical:
1775
Catherine the Great:
expanded the Russian Empire
Russia Historical:
1917
Bolshevik Revolution
(Nicholas II- last Czar)
Russia Historical:
1920’s
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Russia Historical:
1941-45
World War II
Russia Historical:
1940’s-90’s
“Cold War”
Russia Historical:
1985
Mikhail Gorbachev initiates policy of “perestroika” (reform) & “glasnost” (openness)
Russia Historical:
1991
Devolution of USSR
Russia Historical:
1992
Russian Federation Treaty
Russia Historical:
1994-96
1st Chechen War
Russia Historical:
1999-2000
2nd Chechen War
Russia Historical:
2008
Russia invades Georgia
Russia historical:
2010
New START Nuclear Arms-control Treaty
Russia Population:
Basics
141 million
Natural Increase: -0.3
Infant Mortality: 9
Life Expectancy: 70
Fertility Rate: 1

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *