Exam 1

Geography
What is geography?
An integrative discipline -intergrating elements from human and environmental systems. Geography means ‘description of the earth’
Geographic Realms
‘Global neighborhoods’ – each have its own identity.
Spatial perspective
The focus of space and place. i.e. – The spatial structure of cities, the layout of farms and fields, the networks of transportation…
The regional concept based on spatial criteria
Regions have greater similarities and common characteristics
Formal region
A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region
Functional region
a region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal structure; because it usually focuses on a central node.
Functional region
a region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal structure; because it usually focuses on a central node
Hinterland
where people are being pulled from.
example….dorm room—->classroom
absolute location
determined by latitude and longitude
Polar axis
the north and south pole. not perpindicular to the sun.
hemisphere
half a sphere…northen and southern. divided by equator.
Latitude
Lines of latitude are parallels that are aligned east-west across the globe, from 0 degrees a tthe quator to 90 North and south latitude a the poles.
Longitude
position on earth from east to west
Prime meridian
the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England; it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. It is sometimes referred to as the Greenwich Meridian.
Tropic of cancer
one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. This is the parallel of latitude that runs 23° 26′ 22″ north of the Equator, and is the farthest northern latitude at which the sun can appear directly overhead
Arctic Circle
This is the parallel of latitude that runs 66° 33′ 38″ north of the Equator.
Tropic of Capricorn
the parallel of latitude that runs 23° 26′ 22″ south of the Equator, and is the farthest southern latitude at which the sun can appear directly overhead.
Antarctic Circle
It is the parallel of latitude 66° 33′ 38″ south of the equator. Everywhere within the Antarctic Circle there is at least one day of the year for which the Sun is above the horizon for 24 continuous hours.
Relative location
The position of one place w/ respect to another place or set of places
Core
central zone of highest concentration and greatest homogeneity
The domain
zone of less intensity
sphere
zone of least intensity but still recognizible
The three general areas of earth’s physical environment
Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere
Tectonic Forces
Push, move and raise earth’s surface
Gradational Forces
Scour wash and wear down earth’s surface
Asthenosphere
paritally molten and pliable region
Lithosphere
Broken number of rigid plates
Continental Drift
The slow movement of continents controlled by the processes associated with plate tectonics
Pangaea
Super continent that broke up over time
Laurasia and Gondwana
The names of the two super continents that broke
What type of evidence proves the Pangaea theory?
Fossil Evidence
Continental plates
Older, thicker, more buoyant lithospheric plate
Ocean Plates
Lithospheric plate more dense then a continental plate.
What are the two types of Lithospheric plates?
Continental and Oceanic plates
What does divergent plate movement do and cause?
They diverge (move away from eachother) causing sea floor spreading or mid-oceanic ridges and a new oceanic floor.
What does Transform plate movement do and cause?
Slides creating faults, earthquakes and tsunamis
What is a Tsunami?
A seismic sea wave. NOT a tidal wave.
What does convergent plate boundaries do and cause
They move toward eachother creating subduction zones, volcanic activity.
The long term pattern in temperature and moisture causing animals and plants to adapt is known as what?
Climate
What occurs in the northern hemisphere turning the east coast tide warm and west coast cold.
Subtropical gyres
What are the three subdivisions climates of the humid equatorial (A)?
Tropical rainforest (Af), Tropical Savanna(Aw), and Tropical Monsoon.
List three characteristics of the Tropical Rainforest (Af) in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
High temperature all year round, no dry season and heavy rain all year round. Vegetation includes broadleaf and evergreen. Located in Northwest pacific coast and south and central America, mostly along equator.
List three characteristics of the Tropical Savanna (Aw) in terms of temperature, precipitation,vegetation and location.
“Long rains and short rains” Dry winter. Located in India, Mexico and Australia.
List three characteristics of the Tropical Monsoon(Am) in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
Short Dry season followed by monsoon. Located in INdia, coastal area of west africa and south east asia.
What are the two subdivions of the Dry Climates (B)?
Deserts (BW) and Steppe (BS)
List three characteristics of the deserts (BW) in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
Thin and poorly devoloped soils called ardisols. Located in North Africa, Australia, Southeast and East Asia, West Costal area of south american and America.
List three characteristics of the Steppe (BS) in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
Winters are very cold and summers are hot. 10-30 inches of rain per year. Vegetation includes grasslands. Soil is caled mollisol. located in NOrth American and Europe.
What are the three subdivions of the Humid Temperate Climates (C)?
Mediterranean (Cs), Humid Subtropical (Cfa & Cwa) and Marine WEst Coast (Cfb)
List three characteristics of the Mediterranean Climate (Cs) in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
17 inches of rain per year. Summers are hot and dry. Located in south western tips of Australia, Africa and southern cali.
What type of climate is found in western America, west coast of South America? Its very hot in the summer and has plains and rocky hills.
The Chaparral
List three characteristics of the Humid Subtropical (Cfa & Cwa) in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
32- 64 degrees. 30-65 inches of rain. located in western side of subtropical. i.g. houston and china. Vegetation includes broadleaf and evergreen.
List three characteristics of the Marine West Coast (Cfb) in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
Summers are cool, mild winters 25-40 inches of rain. Located in Western side of continents. Vegetation includes Broadleaf and needleleaf.
List the two subdivisions of the Humid cold (D) Climates.
Humid Continental (Dfa & Dfb), Subarctic (Dfc &Dwc).
List three characteristics of the Humid Continental in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
Humid Continental (Dfa & Dfb), 20-50 inches of rain. Cold winters, hot summers. Located in Northern Hemisphere (connecticut, New England) Vegetation includes needleleaf, mixed forests, grass, and deciduous forests. Alfisil soil, – rich in nutrients.
List three characteristics of the Subarctic in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
Largest temp range. -14-74 degrees. Summers and short and cool, winters are cold and long. Located in Central and western Alaska, Canada and Russia. The Taiga gets as cold as -65.
List the two Subdivisions of The Cold Polar Climates.
The Tundra and Ice Cap
List three characteristics of the Tundra in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
-94-54 degrees. 10-12 inches of rain per year. Barely any vegetation besides wild flowers and shrubs. Soils are called spodosols.
List three characteristics of the Ice Cap in terms of temperature, precipitation, vegetation and location.
Less then 5 inches per year. All monthes below 0 degrees. Located in Antarctica and Greenland. No vegetaion. Glaciars located here.
Patterns of learned behavior transfered from generation to generation is known as what?
Culture
Large segments of the earth’s surface having same broad culture complexes is known as what?
Culture realms
What are the three Cultural Subsystems?
Technological, sociological and ideological.
Modification of the earth’s surface by human action is called what?
Cultural landscape.
What are the three main aspects of culture?
Language, Religion, and Ethnicity.
What are the three periods of population growth?
Negligible growth (prior 8000 BC), slow groth (8000 BC – 1750), very brief period of rapid growth
What is the cause of the very rapid growth?
The industrial revolution
Population growth impacts what?
The ratio of resources to population and the age/sex distribution
What has changed in world fertility rates?
Steadily declined over 40 years.
What does the population pyramid do?
Summarizes growth patterns of regions
What is the dependency ratio?
#people X <15 - X>65
____________________
#people 15-65
What are the three major population clusters?
East Asia, South Asia, Europe
What is the ecumene?
The habitable portions of the Earth’s surface where permanent human settlement have arisen
What is Diaspora
The scattering of people
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign gov’t and recognized by a signifigant portion of international community is known as a what?
State
What is the World Trade Organization
An organization charged w/ enforcing global trade policies.
What is the free trade Association?
Free trade among members
The world bank classification is based on what?
Countries’ gross national product or GNP.
Primary activities
Harvested directly from the earth
Secondary activites
add value by transforming into something useful
Tertiary activities
Provide services
What is the largest economic sector?
Agriculture
Globalization
The gradual reduction of regional contrasts at the worlld scale, resulting from increasing internation culture, economic and political exchanges.
The elimiination of foreign economic domination, self-sufficiency, and redistribution of political and economic power constitute what?
The Soviet development model.

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