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Geography
demographer
one who studies population
demography
study of population
Natural changes in population
birth & deaths
Migration
relocation from other areas
Highest birth rate
Africa
largest population
China – high birth/low death
developing countries
natural increase between births & deaths
developed countries
birth & death more balanced
Type of growths – 2
exponential
arithmetic
exponential growth
doubling at each stage
2,4,8,16,32
arithmetic growth
steady/constant increase
2,4,6,8,10
Population increase
if 10% annual increase – population would double every 7 years

if 2% increase – double every 35 years

Rule of 70 (economic principle)
70/rate
70/10%= 7 years
population densities -what is it4 types
concentration of population
Arithmetic
Physiological
Urban
Rural
Arithmetic densities
total pop. / total area (sq mile)
Physiological densities
total pop / available cultivable land
Urban densities
Total pop / urban area
Rural densities
total pop / land under cultivation
World population distribution

major clusters 3
minor clusters 2

maj. – eastern asia/china, south asia/india , europe

minor – east & central no. america, southeast asia

Where is most of the population contained?
middle lattitude sections – moderate cllimate
largest populated area in US
Bos-Was corridor or megalopolis
Thomas Malthus

Malthusian concept

british economist

1. population increases exponentially
2. food supply increases arithmetically
3. population controlled by war, famine & disease

*pop is increasing faster than food supply

Scorched earth
used by the russians

burnt land as they retreated from attack

Bubonic Plague
“black death” killed 2/3 of european population
Population Structure
makeup of population – age & sex
illustrated by population pyramids
Population Changes – Increases -3
1. agricultural revolution- contributed to increased food supplies because of improved techniques
2. Industrial revolution – improved sanitation, medical technology
3. Immigration
Population Changes – decreases – 5
1. war
2. famine
3. disease
4. natural disaster
5. emigration
emigration
leaving a country
immagration
coming into a country
types of migration – 4
1.voluntary (italy – conn.)
2. involuntary ( slaves from africa)
3. internal (hamden to madison)
4. international ( montreal to iowa)
out migration
in migration
internal movement/change
demographic transition (concepts of population)
sequence of change over time
Stages of demographic transition -4
1.high stationary phase- birth & death rates high – population remains low

2.early expanding – high birth /decrease in deaths -population increase

3. late expanding – death rate at low level; reduction in births – population increases slowly

4. low stationary – birth & death rates stable – population remains stationary

Culture
patterns of learned human behavior that form a durable template by which ideas & images can be transformed from 1 generation to another.

*Culture is’nt biologically transmitted

Lingua franca
official language of a country – not always the language of the people
cultural landscape
a composite of “man-made” features or surface of earth as modified by human activity
cultural hearths
locations where a particular population developed an area of power (sphere of influence)
how was culture spread?
Military movement
Cultural Hearths – 3
A. Agricultural – iran, iraq, india,mexico

B. Urban

C. Religious – Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

Urban Hearths – 4
1. Fertile Crescent – land between Tigris & Euphrates

2. Nile river valley

3.Indus river system

4. Hwang-Ho valley in No. China

Cultural Development – 3
1. Paleolithic period
2. mesolithic
3.neolithic
paleolithic period
old stone age culture
invented tools, animal skins for clothes, hunted big & small game, art & religion developed
*climatic changes produced cultural diversity
mesolithic period
middle stone age
domestication of plants & animals
shift from food gathering to food producing
sedentary agricultural societies
neolithic period
new stone age
*developed new toos & technology based on sedentary agriculture
*diversification of activity – weaving, mining, brick making
*development of complex stratified societies – classes developed (rulers, military,peasants)
*more diverse-not just hunter/gatherer
Caste system
type of class society
Components of culture (Huxleys cultrural model) – 3
1. menifacts-most central & durable cultural elements – language

2. sociofacts – linkages between individuals & groups

3. artifacts – material goods

acculturation
process by which culture changed substantially through interaction with another culture which is more dominant
Forces of Change -2
1. Innovation – technology
2.diffusion – spreadout
Environmental determinism
“tell me where you live and I will tell you what you are”

determines how one lives according to climate

possiblism
possibilities & opportunities to decide how to live
Stage of Development -4
(Human, Cultural, Economic)
1. hunting & gathering-live on what is available- moves on when depleated

2. herding – animals deplete resourses & than tribe moves on
a. subsistence herding – provide for
own need
b. commercial herding -provide for
profit

3.Agricultural – subsistance – high labor – intensive
commercial – plantations, large farms, extensive – less manual labor;more mechanical

4. Urban-large population, developed technology, capital available for development, most advanced level

Swidden or slash & burn or milpa agriculture
crop production of forest clearings kept in cultivation until their quickly declining fertility is lost. Cleared plots are than abandoned and new sites prepared
leaching
water soaks down through soil & disolves minerals- creates unfertile soil
Each stage of Development represents increasing complexity of: 4
1. material goods
2. social organization
3.increase ability to support high population densities
4. greater interference with the natural environment
Categories of economic activity -4
1. primary -harvest or extract – taking form the ground

2. secondary – add value by changing form orcombining things into a more useful commodity – manufacturing

3.Tertiary – provide service to primary & secondary activities and goods & services to the individual & community

4. quaternary – services rendered by proffessionals working in education, government

world cultural realms -4
1. language
2. social organization
3. technology
4. biological characteristics

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