Final Review

drying up of lakes & marshes
Central Asian Highlands
Himalayas & Tibetan Plateau
nomadic pastoralists
people who raise livestock for subsistence purposes. many of the places are too arid or too high to support human life. sedentary people live in the river valleys
gobi desert
one of asia’s least populated areas. northern & northwest china to southern mongolia
farming villages
dating from neolithic era. domestication of the horse made nomadic pastoralism possible
islam, tibetan buddhism, christianity, judaism
islam in central asia
pashtuns interpret it strictly. kazaks interpret it more loosely. most muslims are sunni, but shi’ism is dominant among central afghanistan
islam in central asia (con’td)
taliban controlled afghanistan- insisted that all aspects conform to its harsh version of islamic orthodoxy. in 2001 taliban destroyed all buddhist statues
tibetan buddhism
mongolia and tibet are mostly lamaist buddhist. before chinese–> country was theocracy where dalai lama enjoyed political and religious authority
tibetan buddhism (cont’d)
chinese invaded in 1959 and persecuted lamaist buddhism. destroyed 6000 monasteries and killed thousands of monks.
tibetan buddhism (cont’d)
dalai lama lives in exile in india. the religion is experiencing resurgence in mongolia
manchu dynasty
occupied mongolia, xinjiang, tibet, and part of kazakhstan by mid 1700s. mongolia and tibet declared independence in 1900s
russian empire
began conquests in 1700s finished just before soviet era (1917-1990). did not include mongolia, tibet, or afghanistan
communist rule
soviets imposed a socialist economy. encouraged russian immigration; foced indigenous peoples to write their languages in arabic script; established union republics

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