Final Study (Book)

Geography
Ethnic cleansing
A more powerful ethnic group forcibly removing a less powerful one
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a homeland
Multi-ethnic state
Many ethnic groups within a state
Multinational State
Two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determinations
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a nationality
Nationality
Legal attachment and personal allegiance to a country
Nation-state
Territory that corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity turned into a nationality
Race
Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor
Self-determination
The right for ethnicities to govern themselves
Boundary
An invisible line marking the extent of a states territory
Colonialism
Effort by a country to make settlements to impose an influence in uninhabited areas
Colony
legally tied to a sovereign state
Gerrymandering
“Illegal act” of redrawing legislative boundaries to benefit a party for power
Sovereignty
Independence from control of other states
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by a government with control of it
Unitary State
Power in the hands of central government officials
Break-of-Bulk point
The different modes of transportation that are possible
Bulk-gaining industry
Making something that gains volume or weight during production
Bulk-reducing industry
Making something in which the inputs weigh more than the final product
Fordism
Idea of mass production
Industrial Revolution
Time involving several inventions that transformed the way in which goods were made
Just-in-time delivery
Shipments of materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed
New International Division of Labor
Transfer of some jobs to LDC’s
Outsourcing
Turning over the responsibility for production to independent suppliers
Post-fordism
More flexible production
Site factors
Locations factors related to the costs of production inside the plant, land, and capital
Situation factors
Transport costs
Agriculture
Deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and animals for economic or sustenance gain.
Commercial Agriculture
Food for sales off of farms
Crop Rotation
Farms are divided into a number of fields and each field is planted on a planned cycle
Green Revolution
The invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agriculture techniques
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
Farms close together who are forced to live off of small areas of land
Pastoral Nomadism
Herding of domesticated animals
Plantation
Large farm that specializes in one or two crops
Seed Agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization
Shifting Agriculture
Method used for humid climates
Slash and Burn Agriculture
Cutting and burning of plants for agriculture
Subsistence Agriculture
Production of food primarily for consumption by the farmers family
Sustainable Agriculture
Preserves and enhances environmental quality
Vegetative Planting
The reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, cutting stems and dividing roots
Culture
Body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits
Custom
Repetitive act of a group
Folk Culture
Small groups in rural areas
Popular Culture
Large societies that share certain habits
Animism
Traditional ethnic religions
Denomination
Division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principles of a religion
Monotheism
Belief in one god
Polytheism
Belief in many gods
Sect
Small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Universalizing (Proselytic) Religion
Appeals to be global, to appeal to all, wherever they live
Arable Land
Land suitable for agriculture
Arithmetic Density
The # of People/Total land area
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in the society
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Epidemiologic Transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy
Average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, an medical conditions.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year (CBR-CDR)
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Chain Migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Emigration
Migration from a location
Floodplain
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends
Forced Migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the MDC’s in search of higher-paying jobs
Immigration
Migration to a new location
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
Net Migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigraion
Pull Factor
Factor that induces people to move to a new location
Push Factor
Factor that induces people to leave old residences
Quotas
Laws that palce max limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution
Undocumented Immigrants
People who enter a country without proper documents
Basic Industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Business Services
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including professional, financial, and transportation services
Central Place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
Consumer Services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services
Gravity Model
The potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
Market Area
Area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
Nonbasic Industries
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
Primate City
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
Public Services
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Range Of Services
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements

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