final words

Geography
sirocco
a hot steady south wind that blows from north africa across the mediterranean sea into southern europe
fjord
steep u-shaped cally that connects teh sea and taht are filled w/ sea water after glaciers melt
peninsula
europe as a whole is a peninsula w/ peninsulas coming off of it/ helps economy because its easy to trade
alps
they cut tialy off from the rest of europe good for skiing and hiking (tourists) bad for italy because they have trouble w/ movement w/in europe
danube river
cuts through the heart of europe from west to east touches 9 counties 1,771 miles long links europe to the black sea
northern european plain
one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the world, relitively flat, armies and invaders can easily get into europe
taiga
a nearly continuous belt of evergreen coniferous forests across the Northern hemisphere in North America and Eurasia
steppe
the term used for the temperate grassland region in the northern hemisphere
chernobyl
april 28 1986 (site of a soviet nuclear power plan nearly 800 miles away) nuclear accident releasing alot of radiation
chernozem
black topsoil one of teh worlds most fertile soils
chechnya
one of the republics that remains part of Russia after the collapse of the soviet union despite independence movements and violent upheaval
USSR
name of the communist nation formed after russian revolution
aksum
important trading capital from 1st-8th century a.d. (now ethopia); it flourished due to its location near the read sea and indian ocean
berlin conference
group of14 european nations in 1884-1885 in berlin, germany; established rules for pulitical control of africa
masai
east african ethnic grouop taht lives on grasslands of the rift valleys in Kenya and Tanzania (heard livestock and farmland) often wear clotes made of calf skin or buffalo hide; women-long skirt robes, men-shorter version, intricate bead work and jewlery
kikuyu
largest ethnic group in Kenya (6.6 million) homeland around mt. kenya, hearders, now live throughout the country and work in a cariety of jobs, organized a siciety when under british control (Mau Mau) british killed 11,000 africans mostly kikuyu during the mau mau rebellion between 1952 and 1960
cash crops
grown for direct sale not for use in a region (coffee, tea, sugar, in africa)
islam
monotheistic religion based on the teachings of muhammed, biggest culture and religious influence in north africa
souk
market places
rai
algeria, type of music developed in 1920s by poor urban children- contains elements of pop western music
perforated
state taht completely surrounds another state
elongated
long narrow shape
prorupted
compact with large extension
compact
distance from center to any boundary is about the same
fragmented
discontinuous pieces of territory
sahel
“shore of the desert” narrow band of grassland that runs east to west along the Southern edge of the Sahara.
aquifers
stores of underground water
oasis
where water from an aquifer has come to the surface. it supports vegetation and wildlife
gagnes river
home of the hindu goddess Ganga
shiva
hindu god (represents the destroyer of ignorance) to followers he is everything
brahmanas
priests/teachers
untouchables
so low that they aren’t even in the caste system
kshatriyas
warriors
sudras
laborers
vaisyas
merchants/farmers
indus river
holy to pakistaneans
qanat
a sustem of underground brick lined tunnels and wells taht collect runoff water from the mountians
noria
water wheel run by the flow of water or animal power
aqueduct
carries water over long distances
desertification
an expansion of try conditions to moist areas taht are next to deserts
mesopotamia
land between teh rivers (rigris and euphrates)
mecca
holiest city of islam
muhammad
islam is based on his teachings; he founded the religion
Taliban
a fundamentalist fuslim political group taht imposed strict rules on peoples behavior
Mosque
place of worship
theocracy
religious leader rules the government (this is how the muslim government works)
Sunni
83% of all muslims
oil
______ has been a bonanza for the region

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