flashcards 40-100

Geography
G.I.S. – Geographic Information System
technology that uses digital map information to create a databank
Sustainable Development
using resources in a way that can meet future as well as present human demands
Culture
total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group
Customs
A traditional and widely accepted way of behaving or doing something that is specific to a particular society, place, or time
Hinduism
dominant religion of India; polytheistic; believe in reincarnation (rebirth) and Karma (rebirth into higher or lower caste dependent on lifestyle); have hereditary social classes called castes
Buddhism
religion that originated in India about 500 BC; follow the teachings of Buddha; follow the Eightfold Path; spread to China, Tibet, Japan and Thailand where it became a religion
Judaism
first monotheistic religion; Old Testament of Bible; Ten Commandments moral code of conduct
Christianity
world’s most popular religion; follows Jesus Christ’s teachings; includes many different sects; main regions are Americas and Europe.
Islam
monotheistic; founded by Mohammed in 600 AD; Holy book is the Koran; 5 pillars of Faith; popular in the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia
Sikhism
monotheistic religion founded in the Punjab region of Northern India in the 15th century. Combines Hinduism and Islam; 5th largest organized religion. Founder was Guru Nanak.
Gender Role
roles specifically assigned to men or women in a culture
Urban
referring to a city setting; usually has a high population density and diverse cultures
Ural
mountain range that runs through western Russia and is considered to be the dividing line between Europe and Asia
Multicultural
containing a mix of peoples and cultures
 Social Class
divisions of a cultures people based on wealth, power and prestige
Social mobility
refers to how easy or hard it is to change one’s social class within a culture.
Cultural Region
region where people share common cultural characteristics
Functional Region
area defined by one function that may cross political boundaries. Often they are organized around a focal point such as a city
Perceptual Region
based on people’s attitudes and emotions about a place. Ex: the “Deep South”
Middle East
 Region that lies at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa
 Suez Canal
canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea and shortens the traveling distance between Europe and Asia
Latin America
applies to all of the Americas south of the United States. It has 4 main areas, Mexico, Central America, the West Indies ( Caribbean) and South America
Panama Canal
An important human-made feature in this region that goes through the Isthmus of Panama joining the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and serves as a major route for International trade.
Sub-Saharan Africa
the areas of Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Many different ethnic groups with animistic, Christian, and Islamic religions; many affected by the slave trade and colonization
Oceania
the Pacific islands of New Zealand ( colonized by the British) and other smaller nations like Tahiti that are spread across the South Pacific
Demography
the study of population
 Urbanization
the movement of greater numbers of people into cities
Settlement patterns
Human factors affect where people settle, like having a capital city at a central location; location along transportation routes; new technology can override physical barriers, and natural resources can attract settlers to an otherwise unfavorable area
Population Density
how many people live in a given area
Population Pyramid
a visual that compares the number of males and females in a society and it includes the average ages of its members. Each group will be represented by a different bar
Shanty Town
a slum settlement where poor people live in dwellings made from scrap materials—such as plywood, corrugated metal and plastic sheets
Push and Pull Factors
the major reasons for migration that either “push” people out of their old location while “pull” factors lure migrants to a new location. Ex: push- poverty, political conflict, environmental factors, oppression. Ex: pull- freedom, economic opportunity (jobs) cultural ties
Social factors
-concern how people organize into groups, such as religious groups
Ethnic Persecution
when they need to migrate due to being persecuted for being members of a particular ethnic group. Ex: Rwandans needed to flee to neighboring countries to avoid being massacred
Religious Persecution
when religious minorities have to leave a place due to their beliefs
Environmental Factors
migration due to the environment, like a drought, crop failures, floods, fires, earthquakes that force people to migrate
Forced Migration
when a migration is forced such as the Atlantic Slave Trade. This migration has accompanied war and the persecution of people throughout most of history
Physical Barriers
natural features that were once a migration to human migration. Examples are mountains, deserts or dense forests
 Land bridge
a natural feature where people used to be able to walk from one land mass to another, like across the Bering Strait now that used to be a land bridge from Asia to North America ( Alaska area)
Diffusion
how something diffuses or spreads
Spatial exchange
-(Cultural Diffusion) when ideas, products, and even cultural traits can spread from one culture to another
Columbian Exchange
when new plants, animals, ideas and even diseases were exchanged between the peoples of the Americas and those of Europe
Cultural Convergence
when different cultures exchange ideas and become more similar
Cultural Divergence
when different cultural influences cause an area to divide into separate parts
Pandemic

an epidemic over a wide geographic area.

 

Traditional Ways
-these societies prefer to do things much as their ancestors have done
Cultural Diffusion
-the spread of ideas, good, technologies, and cultural traits from one society to another.
Genocide
-when a dominant group tries to completely eliminate a religious or ethnic group -The mass murder of a people.
Terrorism
-the use of threats of terror against innocent civilians to gain attention and achieve a group’s aims
Technology
-the use of materials, tools, and skills to meet human needs.
Technological innovation
-the development of new technologies
Technological innovation
-the development of new technologies
GPS
– a spatial information system that merge information from satellites and land base sources
Desalinization
– the removal of salt from ocean water
Constitutional monarchy
– kingdom in which the ruler’s powers are limited by a constitution
Direct Democracy
– a form of government in which people vote on policy initiatives directly
Representative Democracy
 – government where the people rule through elected representatives
Dictatorship
– government in which an individual or groups holds complete power
Political Power

 – ability of a person or group to determine the policy of a government to serve their individual or group interest

 

Political Region
– a geographic area that is run by a specific government and has its own laws; there are various levels of political regions, such as: a country, a state, districts within a state, and cities within a state
Political Unit
– a unit of territory defined by boundaries set by political authority and usually having a separate political organization
Borders
– lines that separate one country, state, province, etc., from another

Sovereign Nation

 

– the supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power by which an independent state is governed and from which all specific political powers are derived; the intentional independence of a state, combined with the right and power of regulating its internal affairs without foreign interference
International Relations
 – a branch of political science concerned with relations between nations and primarily with foreign policies
 Balance Of Power
– an equilibrium of power sufficient to discourage or prevent one nation or party from imposing its will on or interfering with the interests of another
United Nations

– an international organization of countries set up in 1945, in succession to the League of Nations, to promote international peace, security, and cooperation

 

European Union

 

– an economic and political association of European countries as a unit with internal free trade and common external tariffs

Decision Making Process

 

– a process of intelligence, design, and choice activities that result in the selection of a particular course of action
Government Policy
– the course of action (or inaction) taken by the state with regard to a particular issue
Point Of View
– the spatial property of the position from which something is observed
Cultural Beliefs
– the ideas, customs, and social behavior of a of a particular nation, people, or other social group

Patriotism

 

– love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

Nationalism

 

 – the belief that people should be loyal to their nation
Economics
– the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management
Economist

– an expert in economics who understands systems of production and distribution and consumption

 

Economic System

 

– the way people produce and exchange goods
Problem of scarcity
 – the fact that humanity does not possess the resources to fulfill everybody’s wishes, desires and needs all at once and all of the time; this leads to disagreements, or conflicts, between individuals and groups over how the finite resources should be distributed
Traditional Economy
– an economy based on agriculture, with others in society working in simple crafts, such as the manufacturing of cloth or pottery

Subsistence Farming

 

– when people raise just enough food or animals to meet their own needs
Cottage Industries
– small-scale business or manufacturing activity that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Free Enterprise System
– economic system in which private individuals own most of the resources, technology, and businesses and can operate them with little government control
Capitalism .
– an economic system in which the means of productions and distribution are privately owned and operated for a private profit; decisions regarding supply, demand, price, distribution, and investments are made by private actors in the market rather than by central planning by the government
Profit
– a financial gain, especially the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something
Supply And Demand
– an economic model of price determination in a market; it concludes that in a competitive market, the unit price for a particular good will vary until it settles at a point where the quantity demanded by consumers (at current price) will equal the quantity supplied by producers (at current price), resulting in an economic equilibrium of price and quantity
Commercial Industries
– economic activities concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacture of goods in factories for the purpose of making a profit
Communist Economy .
– The government owns and operates all businesses. A plan is developed by the government, and factory managers are given quotas to meet based upon the national plan
Socialist Economy .
– The government owns and operates many basic industries, while other businesses are privately owned
Mixed Economy
– Most countries have economies that blend features of each of the other types of economies
Human Development Index
– Developed by the United Nations to measure a country’s level of economic development. THE HDI takes into account demographic, economic, social, and political indicators to determine the level of economic development and standards of living of the people in a nation
Less Developed
– A country where most people are engaged in primary economic activities such as agriculture and mining.
Newly Developed
– A country where large numbers of people are engaged in secondary economic activities, mainly manufacturing
More Developed
– Like the U.S. Most workers are engaged in tertiary or quaternary economic activities, such as performing services or processing information
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) .
– The total value of all goods and services produced by a nation in a year
GDP Per Capita
– GDP/total population in a country. Reflects the total value of all goods and services produced by a nation in a year by an average person.
Infant Mortality Rate .
– The number of infants who die for every thousand births. Closely related to the level of medical care available when an infant is born
Literacy Rate
– Percentage of people in a country who can read and write
Primary Activities
– The most basic economic activities in all societies involve the production of foods and the extraction of resources.
Secondary Activities
The manufacture and production of goods. Adds value to raw materials by processing them or by changing their form.
Tertiary Activities
Deals with services. This sector is identified by a variety of services performed by people and businesses. In U.S., more than 80% of the labor force are tertiary workers.
Quaternary Activities – 
Economic activities involving information processing and management.
Globalization

The creation of a single global economy and community.

 

 Outsourcing
The process by which a company hires other companies to perform some of its work
 Human Resources
People are an ingredient in producing a good or service. Where people are located also affects the location of economic activities.
Capital Resources

 Goods made that are used to make other goods and services, rather than being consumed.

 

Infrastructure
 The foundation upon which business operate and is critical for economic growth. It’s a type of capital resource that is the investment that a society makes by building roads, railroads, electric power plants telephone and internet lines. Infrastructure also includes the investment a society makes in providing a system of law-and-order, money and banking, hospitals and healthcare, and other essential services.
Entrepreneurship
The acts of people who bring together and organize all the other productive resources. Usually are business owners or managers.
Productive Resources
 Natural resources, human resources, and capital resources that are used by entrepreneurs.
 Specialization

Different areas seem to specialize in specific economic activities, which leads to trade.

 

Comparative Advantage
 Due to uneven distribution of both natural and human resources, each region tends to make certain types of goods, based on the productive resources it has available. Each region will produce those goods and services it cam make at the lowest cost.
Export
Goods and services sold from one country to other countries.
 Import

 Goods from foreign countries brought into a country for use or sale.

 

Protective Tariff
 Taxes added to imported goods to protect a country’s existing industries.
 Free Trade Zone

No tariffs or quotas between member countries to restrict trade.

 

Per Capita Income

Or income per person is a measure of average income within a country. It is calculated by taking all sources of income (such as GDP or National Income) and dividing it by the total population. This can be used to compare countries’ economic development.

 

Life Expectancy
The average age that a person in a given country can expect to live to. Usually ties back to the economic development status of a country.

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