GEG 102 Human Geography Chapter 4 The Geography of Religion

Geography
Religion
A way to harmonize all aspects of being, give order and meaning to life, protection against, or an explanation of the mysterious, potentially destructive, forces of nature, a way of explaining the unknown of this world and any subsequent one(s), a sense of security, guidance, even control of a population.
Monotheistic
Religion that supports the belief in one God or supreme being.
(Judaism, Christianity, Islam)
Polytheistic
Religions that support the belief in many gods
(Hinduism)
Secularization
The belief that religions and religious teachings and rituals should be refuted or ignored
Agnostic
Do not claim a religion yet believe in the possibility of a supreme being or God
Atheistic
Deny or disbelieve in the existence of a supreme being or God-based beliefs on science instead of faith
Proselytic
Religions that actively seek new members and conversions, and welcome anyone who chooses to make a symbolic commitment; generally monotheistic
(Christianity, Islam)
Ethnic
Religions are associated with a particular ethnic group that does not actively seek converts-membership is through birth-strong territorial and cultural identification
(Judaism and Hinduism)
RELIGIOUS CULTURE REGION
Sacred space
A type of culture region associated with religions can include natural features or locations as well as anthropogenic places that possess special religious meaning.
RELIGIOUS CULTURE REGION
Anthropogenic
Human made
RELIGIOUS CULTURE REGION
Mystical places
Places of great natural beauty or mystery
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Hearths
Most of the world’s religions diffused from two principal Asian hearths: the Semitic and the Indus-Ganga
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Semitic hearth
The three great monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) began among the semitic peoples along the desert edges in the Middle East (centered on Jerusalem)
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Judaism
Ethnic religion about 4000 years old
gain followers across Israel
forcibly dispersed across Europe
half of the Jews live in Israel, have to North America
the foundation for Christianity and Islam
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Christianity
Stimulus: Russ from Judaism
Relocation and Expansion: military and missionary campaigns
Hierarchical: military conquest of local leaders who converted the common people
Contagious: daily contact and trade between believers and nonbelievers
due to diffusion Christianity claims the greatest number of believers worldwide (about 35%)
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Pagan
The term applied to rural, non-Christians
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Contact Conversion
The daily contact and trade between believers and nonbelievers that resulted in contagious diffusion
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Islam
Allah is the one true God, about 1300 years old
Stimulus: born from Jewish and Christian roots
Expansion: across Central Asia, North Africa, and Europe
Relocation: Indonesia Southern Africa and Western Hemisphere
the second largest and fastest-growing religion due to diffusion in countries with high birth rates
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Indus-Ganga hearth
The lowland plain fringing the northern edge of the Indian subcontinent and drained by the Ganges and Indus rivers-reaching gave birth to Hinduism, then Buddhism.
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Hinduism
Incorporates and accepts all forms of belief, emphasizes the divinity of the soul
uses the “caste system”, based on karma
cycle of reincarnation to achieve eternal peace
no founder or Scripture
worlds oldest major religion and the third largest, about 4000 years old
Contagious: along the Ganges River
Stimulus: ancient offshoot of Jainism
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Buddhism
More a moral philosophy than a religion
live by the four Noble truths to achieve Nirvana
Stimulus: of Hinduism about 2500 years ago
Contagious and Contact Conversion: spread by merchants, monks, and missionaries
Stimulus: creation of Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and blending with Japanese Shintoism
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Animaism/Totemism/Fetishes
Animals and natural features are the link between humans and omnipresent God
Animism = Voodoo
Totemism = North American Indians
Fetishes = inanimate objects that hold magical powers and independent wills
RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION
Shamanism
Ethnic tribal religions that employ Shaman as mediators between the human and spirit world
RELIGIOUS ECOLOGY
Teleology
The doctrine that the earth was created especially for humans, who are separate from, and superior to it. We will use the earth for what we want
RELIGIOUS ECOLOGY
Geomancy
A traditional system of land use planning based on certain configurations of terrain, compass direction, soil texture, watercourses, etc. being more favorable than others
RELIGIOUS ECOLOGY
Feng Shui
What geomancy is known as in North America
RELIGIOUS ECOLOGY
Yin-Yang
Yang: the active, masculine energy in the lofty mountain range = the azure Dragon
Yin: the passive, feminine energy of a lower ridge = white tiger
RELIGIOUS INTERACTION
Theocracy
A government run by church leaders
(Vatican City)
RELIGIOUS INTERACTION
State Church
Often established in countries where religion provides the basis for nationalism-is recognized by law as the only church in the state-government controls both church and state
(Norway)
RELIGIOUS INTERACTION
Pilgrimage
Migrations resulting from religious discrimination or journeys to sacred places
Islam: cities of Mecca and Medina
Hinduism: Ganges River at Varanasi
Judaism: Jerusalem
Roman Catholicism: Vatican City, Lourdes France
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Religious Structures
Very in size, function, style, rolling material, and relative location
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Synagogue
Where the people of the Jewish faith worship
vary greatly and require at least 10 adult males for religious service
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Church
The place of worship for most Christians
architectural virtues of height, durability, and central location
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Mosque
The focal point of the Islamic community
range from a simple room to an elaborate and imposing structure
may include minarets or towers which call the faithful to prayer
architectural virtues of height, durability, and central location
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Temple
Found in every village and house a multitude of icons of God’s
much worship occurs in the home
includes the “Ghats” which lead down to the Ganges River
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Buddha
Very humanlike in Cambodia
fat and jovial in China
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Ghats
The steps that lead to the Ganges River providing accessibility to the river-important for religious purposes
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Pagoda
temples that may include prayer flags and carvings of Buddha in the Buddhist religious landscape
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Landscapes of the Dead
Area is devoted to tributes to the deceased, they vary greatly between religions from obvious landscape features, to having no impact on the landscape
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Air Burials
Mountainous regions along the Yangtze River Valley of southern China, the coffins are hung from the Cliffside and are left for all-time
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Inukshuk
Rock piles or cairns under which the in you it’s traditionally buried their dead. Usually in the shape of a person
RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES
Toponym
The names given to places, structures, and infrastructure, and provide another representation of the religious landscape.
Reflect the diffusion of specific religions
especially evident in Christian religious regions

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