GEG 102 Human Geography Chapter 5 Geolinguistics

Geography
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Slavic
Belonging to the Indo-European language family, it is dominant in Russia, and Eastern Europe
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Iranic
Belonging to the Indo-European language family, it is dominant in the Middle East, and Southwest Asia
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Indic
Belonging to the Indo-European language family, it is dominant in India
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Germanic
Belonging to the Indo-European language family, it is predominant in Europe, North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Romance
Belonging to the Indo-European language family, it is predominant in Europe, North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand
CULTURE REGION
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Afro-Asiatic language family
The second major language families corresponding to the Islamic Semitic religious hearth
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Semitic
Belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language family, it is predominantly found in northern and eastern Africa, and the Middle East
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Hamitic
Belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language family, it is predominantly found in northern and eastern Africa, and the Middle East
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Niger-Congo
Belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language family, it is found in Africa south of Sahara
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Swahili
Belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language family, and the Niger-Congo subfamily, it is the lingua-franca of East Africa
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Sino-Tibetan
Belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language family, it is spoken mainly in the hearth region of China and southeast Asia, dominated by Chinese language
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Austronesian
Mainly on tropical islands from longitudinally: Madagascar through Indonesia and Pacific islands, to Hawaii and Easter Island.
Latitudinally: Hawaii and Taiwan in the North to New Zealand in the South
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Minor language families
Minor tribal and ethnic languages are found on every continent, typically in physical refuge areas (mountains, deserts, islands, climate extremes)
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Basque
A relic of the primordial tongue, Nostratic, because it is unrelated to any other language in the world and is found only in a physically isolated region within the Pyrenees mountains bordering Spain and France
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Regional dialects
Results from differences in pronunciation, vocabulary use and meaning, rhythm, and speed within the same language
can represent social classes and educational level within a region
formal or vernacular culture regions which do not necessarily follow functional culture region boundaries
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
African American english
Black English vernacular
ebonics
A variety of the southern dialect with African influence in terms of pitch, rhythm, and tone. Grew out of pidgin that developed on early slave plantations and is now spoken by 80% of African-Americans
CULTURE ECOLOGY
Linuistic refuge belt
Ireland’s or inhospitable habitats which provide protection and isolation from aggressors = rarely attract conquerors
CULTURE ECOLOGY
Shatter belt
Regions containing a great variety of cultures/religions/languages
CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC INTERACTION
Social Moral Model
Describes the effect of the replacement of native languages with the diffused language
CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC INTERACTION
bilingual
A population which speaks two languages fluently
CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC INTERACTION
monoglot
A region or states within which only one language is spoken
CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC INTERACTION
Economic Development Model
Economic development can break the social structure needed for the continuation of a minority language
CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC INTERACTION
Clearence Model
Part of the economic development model where economic development draws people from rural to urban areas, leaving few native speakers behind to perpetuate the language
CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC INTERACTION
Changeover Model
Part of the economic development model where development occurs in the linguistic refuge area, and the native speakers are overwhelmed by the intruders language
CULTURAL-LINGUISTIC INTERACTION
Welsh Gaelic
A Celtic Indo-European language in Great Britain
serves as an example of the social moral model, and both types of the economic development model (clearance and changeover)
LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPES
anticonquest
Conquering cultures will impact the Concord region through assignments of place names (toponyms). Toponyms of the defeated culture are venerated and perpetuated even though the people are denied any power or cultural influence
LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPES
Generic toponyms
One of two parts, the generic part tells what type of place is being described
LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPES
Specific topocyms
One of two parts, the specific part adds detail to the generic part
LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPES
English-Only laws
Laws which present English as the only accepted language to do business with
Geolinguistics
The study of the spatial distribution of language
Language
A tongue that cannot be mutually understood (French, English, Mandarin)
Mother tongue
Or native language, is the language a person is raised with, or the dominant or first language spoken. What you would speak before you go to formal school
Native Language
Or mother tongue, is the language a person is raised with, or the dominant or first language spoken. What you would speak before you go to formal school
Native Speaker
Those who speak their mother tongue (the language they are raised with)
Dialect
A variation of the language that is mutually comprehensible between groups, distinctive enough to label speaker by geographic region, social class, educational level
Pidgin
A language resulting from the blending of different linguistic groups in contact (usually for the purpose of trade and commerce)
a small vocabulary that includes words from each language family relevant to the business at hand
(creole, Hawaiian English)
Lingua Franca
One language becomes dominant for communication and commerce over a wide area where it is not the mother tongue (marketplace language)
Marketplace Language
The dominant language for communication and commerce over a wide area where it is not the mother tongue (lingua franca)
Nostratic
An ancient language, spoken in the Middle East 12,000 to 20,000 years ago
Primordial Language
The single original language and hearth from which all others developed, almost certainly in Africa (also called primordial tongue)
Unilingual
A population who speaks one language
Bilingual
A population who speaks two languages
Trilingual
A population who speaks three languages
Multilingual
A population who speaks more than three languages
Polyglot
A region or state within which many languages are spoken
Linguistic Islands
Areas that are separated from the main language region
CULTURE REGION & DIFFUSION
Indo-European language family
Hearth in Turkey about 9000 years ago
corresponds with Christian Semitic religious hearth
Relocation: agriculture, exploration, commerce, and trade
Hierarchical: military expansion
Contagious: missionaries
largest and most widespread language family in the world, includes five major subfamilies:
Slavic
Iranic
Indic
Germanic
Romance

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