GEO 106 (Ryerson)

Geography Concepts (5)

1) Space – absolute, relative and cognitive

2) Location – nominal or absolute

3) Place – objective or subjective location (most used)

4) Site – specific place with unique attributes

5) Situation – a specific place with a larger context (attached to something)

Geography Attributes (3)

1) Distance – absolute, relative and cognitive

2) Direction – 5 types

3) Area – Objective and subjective

Types of Directions (5)

1) Cardinal (NWSE)

2) Cultural (my front yard)

3) Cognitive (in your head, what you think is a direction)

4) Relative (in relation to)

5) Social (rich and poor sides)

Distance Decay
As something moves farther away it becomes less related
Friction of distance
Reflection of the time and cost of overcoming distance, as technology gets better, time and cost is reduced.
Elements of Maps (3)

1) Scale

2) Projection – spherical earth flattened

3) Symbolization – railroad, streets, water, etc.

Small Scale means…

large area and details covered.

Large scale means small area and details

Every map must be compromised and what elements are suppressed?… (4)

1) Distance – equidistant

2) Area – equal area

3) Shape – conformal

4) Direction/angle – conformal

Mercater map
It was made as more of a reflection, tends to distort distances
Types of Distances aka Proxemics (Distance b/w us) (4)

1) Intimate – Kissing

2) Personal – Acquaintance

3) Social – Space b/w ppl on subway

4) Public – Lecture, presentation

Characteristics of Environments (3)

1) Nature

2) Technology

3) Culture

Perception and Perspective

Perception is what you see, your mental impression which is influenced by your experiences.

Perspective is a way of looking at something and is a way others may see us as.

Environments for Humans by Sonnenfeld (4)

1) Geographical – The world as a whole.

2) Operational – What influences you, the ocean, rocks, etc

3) Perceptual – What you are aware of, interests, money, etc. Out feelings and awareness.

4) Behavioural – Interacting with what you literally see.

J. Douglas 3 Types of Spaces (3)

1) Microspace – Comfort zone, your space only.

2) Mesospace – Home base, work.

3) Macrospace – Home range, stores around the area, walking distances.

Features That Influence People’s Behaviour in Space (3)

1) Fixed features – Walls, buildings.

2) Semi-fixed features – Furniture.

3) Informal features – Space b/w people’s bodies.

Sociopetality vs Sociofugality

Sociopetality – Centripetal forces that encourage stable relationships between others.

Sociofugality – Centrifugal forces that discourage relationships between others.

Decision Making Types of People (3)

Maximiser – Best solution in a perfect setting, never seen in real life. “Economic Persons”

Optimiser – Makes the best of what he has to work with, produced the most optimal outcome.

Satisficer – Select what satisfies you, sub-optimal decision.

Geography Definition and Types (2)

Geography is the description of the earth.

1) Human Geography – social sciences, ppl and place

2) Physical Geography – environment, processes and natural science elements

Cartographer Video
States that some maps such as the Mercater map was designed in a flawed manner and is not reliable. Distance and area is distorted and is only good for navigation, not presenting the earth as it is.
Mental Map
Psychological representations of locations created from people’s ideas and impressions.
The resolution levels used in any human geographic research. Referred to as the size of the study, or the time covered or the number of investigations.
Geo Information Systems (GIS)
Organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographical data designed to capture, store, update and manipulate spatially reference data.
Lynch’s Elements of a City (3)

1) A city that was clearly imaged was aesthetically pleasing

2) Well imaged cities are easy to comprehend and navigate

3) A well imaged city made it is easier for politicians and planners to promote the city as a good place

Vernacular Landscapes
Landscapes that evolved and were shaped through people’s activites or occupancies
Homogeneus, standardized landscapes that don’t have specific meaning or identities. Often influenced by globalization. Ex// big malls,
Topophilia and Topophobia

Topophilia is the emotions and significance that has attached a person to a particular place

Topophobia is the fear of certain places, related to landscapes of fear

Adaptive vs Integrated Environments

Adaptive environments asks how proxemics affect the activities of people in an environment.

Integrated Environment asks how proxemics affect social interaction and whether it helps or not

Place Distinction Attributes (3)

1) Real attributes – generated by a precedent (I live in a good town and believe it is wholesome and good)

2) Perceived attributes – based on your belief of whether a place is good (that place was fun, it seems good)

3) Contrived attributes – your beliefs are manipulated by some marketing or actual creation of the place

P-plane and C-fields

P-plane is what we perceive

C-fields are the constructs, what we make out of our p-planes

Types of Images (3)

1) Designative – how to get somewhere

2) Aappraisive images – your judgements of a place

3) Prescriptive images – preferences

Types of Appraisals (2)

1) Evaluative – questionairre

2) Affective – surveying ppl

Spatial Relationships (4)

1) Egocentric – you are centre

2) Topological – located in reference to another thing

3) Projective – based on relationship (far/close)

4) Euclidean metric – x, y grid

Spatial Relations 3 Stage Model (3)

1) Egocentric – based on you

2) Diff. partially coordinated – organised around specifics

3) Operationally coordinated and integrated – abstract and euclidean

Cognitive Filtering
Truths are relative to a person’s interpretations

What are W. D. Pattison’s traditions in Geography? (4)

What are the most important traditions?

1) Spatial – analysis of general patterns in locations, space, etc.

2) Area studies – study of a region characteristics and attributes

3) Human-land – How humans change and are changed by their environments

4) Earth-studies – Study of -spheres (Atmosphere, etc.)


The most important are 1) – 3)

What is Quality of Life and what does it examine?

QoL is the state of social wellbeing of person or groups as they perceive it.


It is used to examine the four traditions

What are the contributors of QoL? (4)

1) Resources – availability (food, love)

2) Oppourtunities (education)

3) Environments (work, living area)

4) Attitude towards the 1)-3) elements

What are the constraints of QoL? (5)

1) Socio-economic (change in income)

2) Ethnic (racism)

3) Lifestyle (have kids, job)

4) Political power (voting right)

5) Environment (pollution)

How can you make a model of QoL?
Combine the Contributors and Constraints and make a mathematical formula out of them.
What are some issues in QoL? (7)

1) Equal weight?

2) Which functions are used? (add, subtract)

3) What variables used?

4) What is defined as constraint, contributor?

5) Are attributes consistent globally?

6) Are attributes consistent across time?

7) Do people value them the same?

What are the QoL indicators sections? (2)

What are some examples of their sub-sections?

1) Socio-economic


-crime rate

-health indicators


2) Built and physical environment

-quality/quantity of housing


-available/access to facilities

What are the pros (3) and cons (2) to QoL?

1) Identify gaps and needs in a nation

2) Provide solutions

3) Provide data to monitor progress


1) Not always good for everyone

2) May ruin it for others


Ask what variables to use and if they are the right ones to be using.

What are some examples of QoL Mapping? (5)

1) Charles Booth Povery Maps – rich to poor in London

2) Human Development Index – social equity/equality

3) David Hulchanski’s 3 cities model – cities (poor to rich)

4) Wellbeing Toronto indicies – measures wellbeing

5) Gross National Happiness – Bhutan made it

(happiness ; money)



Who made the Human Development Index (HDI)?

What program was created for the Index?

What are the indicators (4) and dimensions (3)?


The United Nations made the HDI. There is also a Millennium Development Goals program aimed at developing people.


1) Life expectancy at birth

2) Average years of schooling

3) Expected years of schooling

4) Gross national income


1) Health

2) Education

3) Living standards

What are the cities in David Hulchanski’s model? (3)

How has this affected Toronto?

1) Poor people city

2) Medium class city

3) Rich people city


Over the years the medium class city has decreased in size, the poor people city has increased in size.

The rich people city has increased slightly.

What are some problems with QoL Mapping? (2)

1) Ecological fallacy – inferring something from aggregate data while that may not be true for everyone


2) Government interventions – may change spatial dynamics and creativity

(poor ppl located outside – more commute time, rich people in centre)

Why do we measure QoL? (3)

1) Compare cities

2) Identify problems

3) Fix and monitor the problems

What are very commonly used indicators that can be used to make snap judgements? (2)

1) Infant mortality – lesser developed countries

2) Crime rate

Territory Definition and Ways it Satisfies Needs (4)

Space used by an individual that satisify needs of…

1) Sustenance

2) Security

3) Socialisation

4) Identity

Territoriality Definition
Persistent attachment to a location.

Ways to get a territory and keep it (2)

and types of defense for a territory (2)

1) Make boundaries (fences, walls)

2) Defense of boundaries (gang violence, grafitti)


1) Personalization (grafitti)

2) Overt behaviour (soldier stance, weapons)

Nation Definition
Group of people sharing a common culture and attachment to a territory
Nationalism Definition
Feeling of belonging to a nation and belief that a nation has a right to determine it’s affairs
State Definition
Area with defined and internationally acknowledged boundaries and political entity
De Jure and De Facto Definitions

De jure – State recognized in law

De facto – State created by control of a territory or population, has no rule of law

Bloc Definition
Combination of countries or groups sharing a purpose
State Forces (2)

1) Centrifugal – Tear a state apart, it is unstable

ex// Referendum of Quebec

2) Centripetal – Bind a state together, it is stable

ex// America has apple pie


Homogenous group governed by themselves (doesn’t occur often)

ex// Inuit, Quebec

Ways to make a Nation-State

1) Alter the space to fit the people

ex// Annexation, division

2) Alter people to fit the space

ex// Ethnic cleansing, emigration

Exploration Process
Have someone explore, deliver a report to the higher ups and have them decide what to do
Colonialism and Imperialism Definition

1) Physical settlment and extraction of land

2) Ideology of one nation dominating the other

Decolonization Definition

Formor colonies achieving independance, remove any knowledge, culture and beliefs.

Hard to adjust after it is done, may want to feel the same.

Region Definition
Constructed area, often overlapping and are changeable
Boundaries Definition
Lins drawn where territories meet, allows territoriality to be defined and enforced
Types of Boundaries representing Sovereignty (2)

1) Antecedent – pre-planned landscaped, no real landscape

2) Subsequent – Already existing, has a basic landscape

Neighborhood Definition

Meso-scale urban form, has a built environment with people and is hard to identify.

It is also possible to change a neighborhood into a differen type.

Types of Neighborhoods (4)

1) Ethnic – ex// Chinatown

2) Lifestyle – ex// Yuppies

3) Built-form – ex// Suburbs

4) Historical – ex// The annex, Weston

Andrew Blower’s Neighborhood Typology (5)

1) Arbitrary – Territory

2) Physical – Territory + residents

3) Homogenous – Territory + similar demographics

4) Functional – Territory + lots of interaction

5) Community – Functional territory w/ lots of relationships

Rachel and Donald Warren’s Topology of Neighborhoods (3)

1) Local Identity – ppl feel they belong and the neighborhood existence is acknowledged

2) Local Interaction – degree of interaction in the neighborhood

3) Local Linkages – degree to which neighborhood is linked to the larger community

Residential Filtering Definition and Types (2)

Complicated process by which housing becomes available to different groups of people through life cycles changing

1) Upward Filtering – lower value housing -> higher value

2) Downward Filtering – high value housing -> lower value

Residential Filtering Influences (5)

1) Life cycle

2) Age of housing materials

3) Type of house

4) Wealth

5) Size/stage of the city (age)

Global Village Definition

Made by Marshall McLuhan

Info, ideas and attitudes travelling at the speed of light through mass media

How did the world change after World War 2?

What did it encourage and create? (7)

Technology and Transportation improved, there was a lot more global movement.

It created more…

1) Borders

2) Laws

3) Corruption

4) Conflict and terrorism

5) Diseases

6) Disenfranchised groups

7) Blocs

Globalization Definition
Interconnection of worlds by process of economic, environmental, political and cultural methods
Economic Globalization Methods (3)

1) New trade agreements and less barriers

2) National sovereignty removed, free flowing capital

3) Multi-national corporations

Political Globalization Methods (3)

1) Nations integrate into world market, less communism

2) Neo-liberal politics

3) More connections, ex// Berlin wall falls

Cultural Globalization Methods (2)

1) Barriers broken

2) Multi-national corporations ex// offer same stuff everywhere, mass production and mass marketing

Drivers of Globalization (4)

1) International division of labour

2) Internationzalized finance

3) New technology systems

4) Homogenization of markets – taste the same

Anti-Globalization movement methods (3)

1) Against trade agreements

2) Against financial systems that support trade

3) Argue that big companies take advantage of cheap labour and places

Globalization and Time Success ways (2)

Success attributed to…

1) Speed in transmission of info/capital

2) Speed of movement

Time-Space Diagrams (4)

1) Diagrams – drawn in a graph, time (y) vs space (x)

2) Paths – linked to location and movements

3) Cubes – changes 2D diagram/paths into 3D

4) Prisms – illustrate how much time-space cube is available, must factor in all constraints (ex// bad weather)

Society Definition
A place with different values on relationships, perception and being able to access may affect our way of interpretation
How can we change how much Space we can access?
By increasing speed. Time is fixed, we cannot change time but we can increase speed to access more space in the same amount of time.
Time-space convergence Definition
As technology increases, speed that we can travel at increases as well.
Physical Flow of Spatial Interaction Movement Objects or Items (4)

1) Goods

2) Materials

3) People

4) Other tangible goods

Created by Malcolm Mclean. Idea to instead park the truck on a ship instead of unloading – innovation.
Non-Physical Flows Definition and Examples (3)

Transmission of intangible objects.

1) Information

2) Electricity

3) Internet

All Flows Need (3)

1) Infrastructure

2) Occur at different scales

3) Occur in different ways through different mediums

Spatial Integration Definition Types (4)

1) Allows integration through a city – ex// paths being built to connect a city

2) Differentiation/Specialization – ex// finance, real estate in downtown vs houses outside the area

3) Organization – ex// Divide between different districts

4) Change agent – innovation ex// Containerization

Ullman’s Model of Spatial Interaction Definition and Conditions (3)

Explains how things moved and why.

1) Complementary – generates interactions, a well constructed relationship

2) No intervening oppourtunity – limit interactions to specific groups – ex// I’m poor, gonna go to Dollarama

3) Transferability – constrain interaction based on movement across distances – ex// canned food doesn’t go bad, easier to transfer

Central Plane Theory (CPT) Assumptions (6)

1) Flat surface

2) Evenly distributed population

3) Evenly distributed resources

4) Similar purchasing power

5) Transportation costs equal in all directions

6) No excess profits

Urban Hierarchy Examples and How They Interact

Metropolis vs Village, different levels of structure

Usually they interact by having lower level constructions located in b/w high level constructions

Thiessen Polygon
Used to delimit trade area of lower order stores – only attracts customers around that area – ex// this Mcdonalds is closer to me, i’m gonna go to this one not farther one
Firm Location Definition and Key Factors (6)

A location in relation to market resources and locations

1) Access to inputs

2) Availability of labour with skills

3) Processing costs

4) Pull of the market for the product (strong marketability)

5) Influence of cultural factors

6) Influence of behavioral factors

Newton’s Formula Significance and Remark About Variable e

What are some alternative ppl who came up with twists on his formula? (4)

The formula says that as Mass increases OR as Distance decreases, interaction will increase.

e depends on speed, meaning the accessibility – more roads, more transportation methods = higher value

Reilly model, Breakpoint model, Thiessen polygon model and Huff model

Central Place Theory Definitions and Assumptions (3) and Elements (2)

Developed by Walter Christaller, seeks to explain relative size and spacing b/w cities

1) Featureless plain

2) One market

3) Travel based on distance

1) Range – max distance someone will travel

2) Threshold – minimum market size represented

Weber’s Industrial Location Idea

Based on weight.

If a product weighs more it’ll be near the market area.

If it weighs less it’ll be near the input or resource area

Transportation and Other Networks Elements to Consider (2)

1) Flows in physical networks – railroads, air, roads

2) Consequences and inefficiencies – pollution, more traffic

Network Analysis (TCU)
Transportation Organization – explore infrastructure of networks of transportation
What do Demographers study? (3)

1) Size and composition of populations

2) Processes that change composition of population

3) Linking population to environments

What are the functions of a census? (3)

1) Who lives where

2) Characteristics of people and places

3) How they relate to society

Demographic Transition Model Purpose, Behaviour and the Stages (4)

Made by Warren Thompson

It describes the changing level of birth and death (rich countries = less birth and death)

On a graph it behaves as the death falls first, population is creates then the birth rate falls after a while.

1) High stable

2) Early expansion

3) Late expansion

4) Low stable

What are some common reasons for death (2) and birth? (2)

1) No protection

2) No health care

1) Need status – big family

2) Need kids for farm – work

What is Urbanization and Urban form?

It examines the chages in the attributes of towns and cities

Urban form is the struction and organizations of cities

(standardized vs organic)

What is Industrialization and deindustrialization?

Growing basic functions in order to create economic growth

Scaling off of factory work and more into office work

What is Decentralization?
Moving to cheaper land with less restrictions
What is Agglomeration Diseconomies?
The reasons not to stay in a dense urban place – more rules, expensive, etc.
What is counterurbanization and reurbanization? What do they result from?

CU – loss of ppl from cities to small areas

RU – retired ppl going back to urban areas

Both result from deindustrialization and agglomeration diseconomies

What is Gentrification?
Movement of high income ppl into older central neighborhoods (less-expensive)
What is the Urban Theory

Trying to understand why the city is the way it is.

Based on economic rent, meaning the amount paid for land use.

Types of some Urban land use (5)

1) Commercial districts

2) Commercial business districts

3) Industrial districts

4) Transitional zone – b/w commercial and residential

5) Residential neighborhoods

Urban Structure is based on (2)

1) Size of footprint (how big it is)

2) Ability to pay rent

What are the models of urban land use (3), describe their characteristics and who made them

1) Concentric model – made by Burgess

This model uses a circle and the expensive housing is on the outside while the business district is in the middle

2) Sector model – made by Homer Hoyt

This model uses wedges and is similar to the other one in a sense that the business district in in the middle, the rest are somewhat scattered

3) Multiple Nuclei model – made by Harris and Ullman

Involves different spaces that are occupied in different areas, has more then one centre

Types of People in Time Space Prisms (4)

1) Homebody

2) Walker

3) Driver

4) Flyer

What is the difference between attribute and temporal limitations in time-space?
Attribute are the normal limitations, temporal are the limitations that you can’t surpass even with money and power.
What are some constraints on the time-space prism? (5)

1) Size

2) Cognitive (knowledge)

3) Capability (accessible)

4) Coupling constraint (arrow of time)

5) Control

Target backcloth definition
Spatial oppourtunity structure of suitable victims (street mugging, etc.)
Elements relating to a victim’s susceptibility to crime (4)

1) Value

2) Inertia – the ease level

3) Visibility

4) Access

Search methods for serial killers (4)

and attack methods (3)

1) Hunter

2) Poacher

3) Troller

4) Trappers

1) Raptors

2) Stalkers

3) Ambushers

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