What makes geographers unique? 

they sythesize natural and social science through spacial relations




What is cultural geography?

it is the study of people in relation to the environment

The study of how space, place, and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes place, space, and landscape. Ex: Folk Culture, Popular Culture


Define distribution and how geographers represent it.          

where things, people, and ideas are. they use dots/colors to demonstrate.



Define diffusion and how geographers represent it.

Where t hings, people, ideas come from and where they go – point of origin, point of destination. arrows



What shapes culture according to ‘environmental determinists’?

environment is the primary determinant of culture


What shapes culture according to ‘possibilists’?

people have the ability to shape culture



What is a cultural landscape? Examples of urban, rural, industrial and

agricultural landscape

the look of the land shaped by people

What can you say about the population distribution on Earth as a whole?

2/3 clustered in 4 regions

east asia 25%

south asia 25%


southeast asia


because of water source, arable land, and favarable weather




 Discuss several reasons why India cannot adopt the same policy as China.

Cultural and political diferences



INDIA                                                           CHINA                                       


DEMOCRACY                                                              DICTATORSHIP



 Why do rich countries tend to have negative population growth?

they are more educated


they have access to contraceptives


most women have careers having kids hinders


very expensive to have kids in rich nations

Why do poor countries tend to have positive population growth?

women are not educated


no access to contraceptives


more kids means more labor to caltivate land


high infant mortality

Why is it that the United States has zero population growth?

low birth rates among rich communities and high birth rate among the poor/immigrat communities. it is a counter balance between the two

What does Thomas Malthus say about population growth?

Population grows geometrically (1, 2, 4, 8)


Resourses grow arithmetically (1, 2, 3, 4)


people will out number resourses = chois

 What does Amartya Sen suggest as a way to slow down population growth?

Improve status of women – give them oppotunities
Contrast how the status of women in Africa and in the U.S. affects population growth

Americans are well educated, more access to contraceptives, etc

Africans just the opposite

Language diffusion by convergence or divergence

language convergence is the combination of two or more languages


language divergence happens when many languages come out of a single one

Latin = italian, french, spanish, portuguese, romanian


Language Tree Model

is a means of visualizing the development of languages
Reasons why English has become the world’s lingua franca



1.      English has becomes the Ligua franca because first it is the language of the British, who had the largest empire, and their colonies adopted the language. Second One of England’s colonies United States is a world super power and it has spread English further. Thirdly the rise of technology in the US most computer components have English names.10

Reasons why languages may not diffuse

Linguistic distribution maps of Africa, India & Europe


Africa, because of the borders that were drawn without their knowledge or consent. In the future the nations will adopt the stronger languages,


The linguistic map of Europe follows the borders of nations, while Indian’s follows province borders.

Linguistic controversies from any part of the world.

undecifered writing systems such as the indus script


is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Mature Harappan period between the 26th and 20th centuries BC


The characters are largely pictorial but includes many abstract signs

In our age of globalization, do you think that languages will continue to converge or not? Explain.

yes they will continue.


What is Spanglish? Who speaks it? Where

 it is the diffusion of English into the Spanish Language wherever there are Spanish speakers

Belief there is no deity/god


Uncertainty about existence of a deity
Explain the concept of Karma’ and how it relates to specific religions
your present form of life is a result of your past deeds; connected to principle of reincarnation
Reasons why Christianity and Islam have wide diffusion
they are both proselytist meaning that they are very aggressive in converting new members

Why did Hinduism remain in India while Buddhism diffused in South East Asia and more recently in the Western world?

hunduism is an ethnic religion and is historically connected with the caste system.


buddhism on the other hand it has diffused to the west in responce to stress: meditation, yoga

Explain the importance of the Haj for Muslim believe

it is one of the five pillar of truth


It teaches us that Muslims are brothers and are equal.


It confirms commitment of Muslims to Allah.


It is a demonstration of Islam unity and Islam universality.

Elements of Christian, cultural landscapes

large cathedrals


tinted windows


the cross on the outside of small churches

Elements of Muslim cultural landscapes

mosque with tall spires around it


prayer callings can be heard


women wear head coverings or bharka



Elements of Jewish,cultural landscapes



males wear a yakama on their heads


Hanukkah Lamp


some wear black clothing and top hats

Elements of  Hindu cultural landscapes

sometimes located on the ganges river


large elaborately decorated temple (alot of detail)


a lot of colors and flowers around

Elements of Buddhist cultural landscapes

there is usually a buddha statue


buddhists monks wear orange


yoga and meditation in progress in some places

belief in one god

indifferent to religion


secular state: separation of church and state

the belief in many gods
strict, literal adherence to a religion – rejection of modern interpretation
belief that inanimate objects have souls and should be whoshipped
What is Geography
it is the study of the earth
Population policies of Japan.

not pro immigration


no space


23% of population is elderly, now declining population


incaurages people to work past retirement age in exchange of medical benefits


Cultural, environmental or economic push factors

a factor that induces people to leave old residences
Cultural, environmental or economic pull factors.
a factor that induces people to move to a new residence

Voluntary migration.

permanant movement undertaken by choice
 circular migrations
short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
Positive or negative migration countries.

positive = USA, England, Canada, Australia


 negative = Zimbabwe, Mexico, sudan, india

Challenges faced by emigrants and immigrant


-Low paying jobs

-Not being close to your family

-Low living conditions

-Living with fear of being deported(if illigal)


forced migration
permanant movement usually compelled by cultural factors
Chain migrations
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Five themes of geography

Place – human and physical features

Region – United by similar physical conditions or cultural traits

Interaction – People adapt to the environment or change it

Location – Absolute location (latitude and longitude). Relative location (inrelation to another place)

Movement – Travel from place to place. exchange of goods and ideas

why is human language unique


Sound communication: vocalization
Symbolic communication
Dynamic change over time and space

How language changes

over time

social setting

space: liguistic diffusion

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