GEO MID TERM

Geography

 

 

What makes geographers unique? 

they sythesize natural and social science through spacial relations

 

 

 

What is cultural geography?

it is the study of people in relation to the environment


The study of how space, place, and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes place, space, and landscape. Ex: Folk Culture, Popular Culture

 

Define distribution and how geographers represent it.          

where things, people, and ideas are. they use dots/colors to demonstrate.

 

 

Define diffusion and how geographers represent it.

Where t hings, people, ideas come from and where they go – point of origin, point of destination. arrows

 

 

What shapes culture according to ‘environmental determinists’?

environment is the primary determinant of culture

 

What shapes culture according to ‘possibilists’?

people have the ability to shape culture

 

 

What is a cultural landscape? Examples of urban, rural, industrial and

agricultural landscape

the look of the land shaped by people

What can you say about the population distribution on Earth as a whole?

2/3 clustered in 4 regions

east asia 25%

south asia 25%

europe

southeast asia

 

because of water source, arable land, and favarable weather

 

 

 

 Discuss several reasons why India cannot adopt the same policy as China.

Cultural and political diferences

 

 

INDIA                                                           CHINA                                       

 

DEMOCRACY                                                              DICTATORSHIP

 

POLITICALLY  DECENTRALIZED                 POLITICALLY   CENTRALIZED
CULTURALLY   DIVERSE                      CULTURALLY HOMOGENEOUS 

 Why do rich countries tend to have negative population growth?

they are more educated

 

they have access to contraceptives

 

most women have careers having kids hinders

 

very expensive to have kids in rich nations

Why do poor countries tend to have positive population growth?

women are not educated

 

no access to contraceptives

 

more kids means more labor to caltivate land

 

high infant mortality

Why is it that the United States has zero population growth?

low birth rates among rich communities and high birth rate among the poor/immigrat communities. it is a counter balance between the two

What does Thomas Malthus say about population growth?

Population grows geometrically (1, 2, 4, 8)

 

Resourses grow arithmetically (1, 2, 3, 4)

 

people will out number resourses = chois

 What does Amartya Sen suggest as a way to slow down population growth?

Improve status of women – give them oppotunities
Contrast how the status of women in Africa and in the U.S. affects population growth

Americans are well educated, more access to contraceptives, etc

Africans just the opposite

Language diffusion by convergence or divergence

language convergence is the combination of two or more languages

 

language divergence happens when many languages come out of a single one

Latin = italian, french, spanish, portuguese, romanian

 

Language Tree Model

is a means of visualizing the development of languages
Reasons why English has become the world’s lingua franca

 

 

1.      English has becomes the Ligua franca because first it is the language of the British, who had the largest empire, and their colonies adopted the language. Second One of England’s colonies United States is a world super power and it has spread English further. Thirdly the rise of technology in the US most computer components have English names.10

Reasons why languages may not diffuse

Linguistic distribution maps of Africa, India & Europe

 

Africa, because of the borders that were drawn without their knowledge or consent. In the future the nations will adopt the stronger languages,


 

The linguistic map of Europe follows the borders of nations, while Indian’s follows province borders.

Linguistic controversies from any part of the world.

undecifered writing systems such as the indus script

 

is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Mature Harappan period between the 26th and 20th centuries BC

 

The characters are largely pictorial but includes many abstract signs

In our age of globalization, do you think that languages will continue to converge or not? Explain.

yes they will continue.

 

What is Spanglish? Who speaks it? Where

 it is the diffusion of English into the Spanish Language wherever there are Spanish speakers

atheism
Belief there is no deity/god

agnosticism

Uncertainty about existence of a deity
Explain the concept of Karma’ and how it relates to specific religions
your present form of life is a result of your past deeds; connected to principle of reincarnation
Reasons why Christianity and Islam have wide diffusion
they are both proselytist meaning that they are very aggressive in converting new members

Why did Hinduism remain in India while Buddhism diffused in South East Asia and more recently in the Western world?

hunduism is an ethnic religion and is historically connected with the caste system.

 

buddhism on the other hand it has diffused to the west in responce to stress: meditation, yoga

Explain the importance of the Haj for Muslim believe

it is one of the five pillar of truth

 

It teaches us that Muslims are brothers and are equal.

 

It confirms commitment of Muslims to Allah.

 

It is a demonstration of Islam unity and Islam universality.

Elements of Christian, cultural landscapes

large cathedrals

 

tinted windows

 

the cross on the outside of small churches

Elements of Muslim cultural landscapes

mosque with tall spires around it

 

prayer callings can be heard

 

women wear head coverings or bharka

 

 

Elements of Jewish,cultural landscapes

synagogue

 

males wear a yakama on their heads

 

Hanukkah Lamp

 

some wear black clothing and top hats

Elements of  Hindu cultural landscapes

sometimes located on the ganges river

 

large elaborately decorated temple (alot of detail)

 

a lot of colors and flowers around

Elements of Buddhist cultural landscapes

there is usually a buddha statue

 

buddhists monks wear orange

 

yoga and meditation in progress in some places

 monotheism
belief in one god
secularism

indifferent to religion

 

secular state: separation of church and state

 polytheism
the belief in many gods
fundamentalism
strict, literal adherence to a religion – rejection of modern interpretation
animism
belief that inanimate objects have souls and should be whoshipped
What is Geography
it is the study of the earth
Population policies of Japan.

not pro immigration

 

no space

 

23% of population is elderly, now declining population

 

incaurages people to work past retirement age in exchange of medical benefits

 

Cultural, environmental or economic push factors

a factor that induces people to leave old residences
Cultural, environmental or economic pull factors.
a factor that induces people to move to a new residence

Voluntary migration.

permanant movement undertaken by choice
 circular migrations
short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
Positive or negative migration countries.

positive = USA, England, Canada, Australia

 

 negative = Zimbabwe, Mexico, sudan, india

Challenges faced by emigrants and immigrant

-Racism….discrimination

-Low paying jobs

-Not being close to your family

-Low living conditions

-Living with fear of being deported(if illigal)

 

forced migration
permanant movement usually compelled by cultural factors
Chain migrations
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Five themes of geography

Place – human and physical features


Region – United by similar physical conditions or cultural traits


Interaction – People adapt to the environment or change it


Location – Absolute location (latitude and longitude). Relative location (inrelation to another place)


Movement – Travel from place to place. exchange of goods and ideas

why is human language unique

 

Sound communication: vocalization
Symbolic communication
Dynamic change over time and space

How language changes

over time

social setting

space: liguistic diffusion

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