GEO120 Exam 2

Geography
Dependency Theory
A popular theory to explain patterns of economic development in Latin America. Its central premise is that underdevelopment was created by the expansion of European capitalism into the region that served to develop “core” countries in Europe and to impoverish and make dependent peripheral areas such as Latin America.
Informal Sector
Includes self-employed, low-wage jobs that are usually unregulated and untaxed. Street vending, shoe shining, etc.
Latifundia
the practice of maintaining large estates
Maquiladora
Mexican assembly plants that line the border with the US.
Remittances
Money sent from family in a foreign country to a LDC.
Urban Primacy
A condition in which a country has a primate city (large urban center)three to four times larger than any other city in the country.
first world regions to be fully colonized by Europe
Latin America and the Caribbean.
As Europe colonized Latin America and the Caribbean, __% of the native population died from __________.
90%, disease, cruelty
Most people in Latin America live in ______.
cities
Currently, Latin America’s natural resources are___________.
plentiful. But recent decades show that those resources are being used and the rainforests are being cut in large numbers.
Latin Americans were early adopter of _________ policies.
neoliberal
New politocal actors, including _______ & ____________ are challenging the old way of doing things in L.Am.
indigenous groups and women
Hurricanes in Caribbean and N. and S. America
Start in July and pound the areas. 74+ miles per hour. typically enter thru lessor Antilles.
Brain Drain
When educated, skilled workers leave their homeland for more lucrative jobs in US, Canada, UK, etc.
Neo colonialism
Economic and political strategies by which powerful states indirectly (and sometimes directly) extend their influence over other weaker states.
Population growth in the Caribbean has ________ over the past two decades.
Slowed. The average woman has two or three children.
The Caribbean is more __________ into the global economy than most other developing nations.
Integrated.
The Caribbean has some of the best examples of the long term effects of _________________.
Globalization.
The Caribbean was forged through European colonialism and the labor of millions of __________.
Africans
Creolization
The blending of European and African elements. Results in unique cultural expressions in religion, music and language.
The Caribbean contains how many independent countries?
20
Concerns about the effects of the end of the Cold War.
Caribbean countries lost strategic significance.
The Caribbean used to export goods, like sugar. Now the economy is shifting to
service and manufacturing.
What is a buffer zone?
An array of nonaligned or friendly states that buffer a larger country from invasion. In Europe, keeping a buffer zone has been a long-term policy of Russia to protect its western borders from European invasion.
What was the Cold War and how long did it last?
An ideological struggle between the US and the Soviet Union. 45 years, from 1946 to 1991.
What is the European Union?
The current association of 27 European countries that are joined together in an agenda of economic, political and cultural integration.
What is a command economy?
A centrally planned and controlled economy, generally associated with socialist or communist countries. Used in Soviet Union and is eastern European satellites.
Explain continental climate.
A climate region in a continental interior, removed from moderating oceanic influences, characterized by hot summers and cold winters.At least one month averages below freezing.
What is irredentism?
A state or national policy of reclaiming lost lands or those inhabited by people of the same ethnicity in another nation-state.
Marine west coast climate
A moderate climate with cool summers and mild winters that is heavily influenced by maritime conditions. Usualy west coasts of continents between lat 45 – 50.
Maritime climate
A climate moderated by proximity to oceans or large seas. Usually cool, cloudy, and wet and lacks the temperature extremes of continental climates.
Describe Balkanization in Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia was a large nation divided by three distinct religions and six ethnic groups. The Serbs controlled everything, and Croats wanted independence. Serbs fought them. Slovenia separated at the same time, but did so more easily because they had fewer Serbs in their territory.
Geopolitics
The study of states. Nations viewed as organic entities in space and as such, subject to biological laws of growth and deline. Perpetual struggle for survival and for control of the space occupied.
Examples of geopolitics
Macedonia: there is a large population of Macedonians in Northern Greece
Aouzou Strip in Chad. Controlled by Libya. Mined for uranium and other minerals.
Kurds in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.
Example of a nation state
Japan.
USA is not.
Europes situation/relative location.
Europe is at the heart of the land hemisphere. Positioned well for global shipping. Every part of Europe is close to the seas. Agglomeration – tendency of people and activites to gather. Break of bulk – Ship things out in bulk, they will be broken down when they reach first destination.
Autonomous areas
Minor political subunits created in the former Soviet Union and designated to recognize the special status of minority groups within existing republics.
Centralized economic planning
An economic system in which the state sets production targets and controls means of production
Exclave
A Portion of a country’s territory that lies outside its contiguous land area.
Perestroika
A program of partially implemented economic reforms/restructuring undertaken during the Gorbechav years in the Soviet Union and designed to make the Soviet economy more efficient and responsive to consumer needs.
Permafrost
A cold-climate condition in which the ground remains permanently frozen.
Russification
A Policy of the Soviet Union designed to spread Russian settlers and influences to non-Russian areaas of the country.
The legacy of the Soviet era left behind these hazards
polluted rivers and coastlines, poor urban air quality and a frightening array of of toxic waste and nuclear hazards.
Russia’s population is ________ and _________.
decling and aging.
Russia – Some areas are experienceing population growth because of _________.
inmigration
Russia – Many rural areas and less competitive industrial zones are experiencing __________ of people and ___ birthrate.
outflows, birthrates.
Russia’s cultural geopgraphy was formed by
(primarily) complex Slavic languages, Orhodox Christianity. Many ethnic minorities continue to grow today.
Russia – Global influences changing the country.
Products, attitudes and technoligies are clashing with traditional clutural values.
Russia – the geopolitical character of the country was shaped by…
the Russian Empire’s land based system of colonial expansion that enlarged Russian influence after the 1600s.
Russia – growing _________ power in Moscow increasingly limits ________ reforms.
centralized, democratic

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