GEO2410 – 3

Geography
True or False: Early urbanization and industrialization generated some uniformly positive images of an urban way of life.
False: The pervading image of urban America was of a living environment that worsened the human condition.
True or False: Early writings focused on the disruption of close family ties and strong close-knit communities, which were characteristic of rural America.
True
In 1887, German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies published a book called ______________.
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
What was Tonnies’ term for “community,” which characterized the countryside/rural village and the surrounding agricultural land worked communally by its inhabitants?
Gemeinschaft
What was Tonnies’ term for “association,” which characterized the large city?
Gesellschaft
Which of Tonnies’ terms described the following:

1. Social life was characterized by “intimate, private, and exclusive living together.”

2. Members were bound by common languages and traditions.

3. People bond together because they are alike – common beliefs and customs.

4. They recognized “common goods, common evils, common friends, and common enemies.”

5. A strong sense of “we-ness” or “our-ness”

Gemeinschaft
Which of Tonnies’ terms described the following:

1. Human relationships distinguished by their competitive and impersonal qualities.

2. More emphasis on individual differences, selfish interests, even hostility towards others.

3. Among city dwellers, a belief in the common good is rare.

4. Ties of family, friends, and neighborhood are of little significance.

5. There is a complex division of labor, in which many different people specialize in many different occupations and depend on others.

Gesellschaft
The shift from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft occurred during the major thrust of urbaninization, which occured when?
Late 19th to the mid-20th century
In 1909, Charles Cooley said that the small village is characterized by _________ relationships, while urban society was characterized by impersonal ___________ relationships.
Primary ; secondary
In the 1940s, Robert Redfield said there were two types of culture. What were they?
“Folk” and “Urban” cultures
The French sociologist Durkheim said that there were two types of solidarity. What were they?
Mechanical solidarity and Organic solidarity
Which of Durkeim’s types of solidarity was found in social bonds constructed on likeness, on common belief and customs, and on common rituals and symbols?
Mechanical solidarity
Which of Durkeim’s types of solidarity was found in a society based on individual differences, division of labor, and the interplay of specialists?
Organic solidarity
True or False: To social theorists, the city was seen as modern society in microcosm.
True: The city was “the laboratory” for society.
Who came up with the “Deterministic Theory of Urban Life” in the late 1930s?
Wirth
Who came up with the “Compositional Theory” in the early 1960s?
Gans and Lewis
Who came up with the “Subcultural Theory” in the late 1970s?
Fischer
In which theory (and by whom) is one consequence of urban life psychological disorders and interpersonal estrangement?
Wirth’s “Deterministic Theory of Urban Life”
What was the name of Wirth’s book in which he described that Americans were becoming less and less likely to do things together?
“Bowling Alone”
In which theory (and by whom) is one consequence of urban living social disorganization?
Wirth’s “Deterministic Theory of Urban Life”
Which theory (and by whom) said that urban living caused spatial segregation of communities and economies resulting in weakened social bonds?
Wirth’s “Deterministic Theory of Urban Life”
What is the term for the breakdown of social norms and values (as predicted by Wirth)?
Anomie
True or False: Wirth argued that more anomie must develop in urban than in nonurban places.
True: He theorized that formal integration can never fully replace a communal order based on consensus.
In general terms, which theory (and by whom) associates an urban way of life with stress, estrangement, individualism, and social disorganization?
Wirth’s “Deterministic Theory of Urban Life”
Which theory (and by whom) was a direct challenge of Wirth’s “Deterministic Theory of Urban Life”?
Gans and Lewis’s “Compositional Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) held that “Social life is not a mass phenomenon” and that “number, density, and heterogeneity are not crucial determinants of social life or personality”?
Gans and Lewis’s “Compositional Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) thinks of a city as a “mosaic of social worlds,” private milieus enduring even in the most urban of environments, with people living in their own social worlds despite the population masses found in cities?
Gans and Lewis’s “Compositional Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) argued that urbanism does not weaken small, primary groups, that people are enveloped and protected by their social worlds, and that it matters little to the average group whether there are 100 people in the town or 100,000 people?
Gans and Lewis’s “Compositional Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) argues that, unlike deterministic theory, the viability of a city’s social worlds is impervious to ecological factors?
Gans and Lewis’s “Compositional Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) argues that urbanism does independently affect social life – not, however, by destroying social groups as determinism suggests, but instead by helping to create and strengthen them?
Fischer’s “Subcultural Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) argues that social groups are affected directly by living in an urban area, particularly because of its larger “critical mass”?
Fischer’s “Subcultural Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) says that large urban size does produce structural differentiation, but that this creates social groups that are made more “cohesive” and “functional”?
Fischer’s “Subcultural Theory”
Which theory (and by whom) argues that people in different social worlds often do interact, but this interaction involves conflict, and because of conflict between social groups, members of these groups embrace their own social world even more firmly, thus contributing to its further self-identity?
Fisher’s “Subcultural Theory”

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