GEOG 112

The formal and established rule over local peoples by a larger imperialist government
Core-periphery model
According to this scheme, the Us, Canada, western Europe, and Japan constitute the global economic core, while other regions make up a less developed periphery from which the core extracts resources.
Concentric zone model
A simplified description of urban land use: a well-defined central business district (CBD) is surrounded by centric zones of residential activity, with higher-income groups living on the urban periphery.
Cultural imperialism
The active promotion of one cultural system over another, such as the implantation of a new landguage, school system, or bureaucracy. Historically, this has been primarily associated with European colonialism.
Cultural assimilation
The process in which immigrants are culturally absorbed into the larger host society.
Cultural nationalism
A process of protecting, either formally (with laws) or informally (with social values), the primacy of a specific cultural system against influences from another culture.
Cultural syncretism/hybridisation
The blending of two or more cultures, which then produces a synergistic third culture or specific behavious the exhibits traits from all cultural parents. 
Learned and shared behaviour by a group of people empowering them with a distinct “way of life”; it includes both material and non-material coponents
Demographic transition model
A four stage scheme that explains different rates of population growth over time through differing birth and death rates.
Dependency theory
A theory that explains patterns of economic development in Latin America. Its central premise is that underdevelopment was created by the expansion of European capitalism into the region that served to develop “core” countries in Europe and to impoverish and make dependent peripheral areas such as Latin America.
Economic convergence
The notion that globalisation will result in the world’s poorer countries catching up with more developed economies.
A shared cultural indentity held by a group of people with a common background or history, often as a minority group within a larger society.
Ethnic religion
A religion closely indentifies with a specific ethnic or tribal group, often to the point of assuming the role of the major defining characteristic of that group.
The increasing interconnectedness of people and places throughout the world through converging processes of economic, political change.;
Gross domestic product (GDP)
GDP is the total value of goods and services produced within a given country in a single year.
Gross national income (GNI)
The value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders, plus the net income from abroad
Gross national income (GNI), per capita
The figure that results by dividing a countries GNI by the total population.
Lingua franca
An agreed-upon common language to facilitate communication on specific topics such as international business




A relatively homogeneous cultural group (a nation) with it’s own political territory (the state). While useful conceptually, the reality of today’s globalised world is that there are very few countries that fit this simplitic definition because of the influx of migrants and/or the presence of minority ethnic groups.
Economic and political strategies by which powerful states indirectly (and sometimes directly) extend their influence over other weaker states.

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